Putative ginsenoside biosynthesis in
. Enzymes found in this study are shown between the reactions. The expression of genes encoding these enzymes in the leaves (L), roots (R) and flowers (F) is shown by heatmap. The genes were mapped using RPKM values, colour coded by increasing relative expression. The broken arrow represents a putative ginsenoside biosynthesis step involving CYP450s and GTs. Abbreviations: AACT, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; HMGS, HMG-CoA synthase; HMGR, HMG-CoA reductase; MK, mevalonate kinase; PMK, phosphomevalonate kinase; MDD, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase; IPI, isopentenylpyrophosphate isomerase; GGPS, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase; GGR, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase; FPS, farnesyl diphosphate synthase; SS, squalene synthase; SE, squalene epoxidase; AS, β-amyrin synthase; DS, dammarenediol-II synthase; CYP450, cytochrome P450; GT, glycosyltransferase.