Comparative transcriptome analysis and identification of immunity-related genes in H. armigera. (A) Gene ontology (GO) annotation of DETs in the H. armigera transcriptome. Enriched GO analysis (* for p < 0.05) of DETs between B. bassiana (blue) and E. cloacae (brown) infections are performed by pairwise comparison with the corresponding control group of fat body (upper panel) or hemocytes (lower panel). Level 2 GO assignments are made in terms of cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes. The number of gene transcripts assigned to each GO term is shown on the right y-axis, and its percentage of the total number of transcripts is on the left y-axis. (B) Distribution of KEGG functional groups within up- and down-regulated gene cohorts in fat body and hemocytes from the Bb and Ec-infected larvae. The bar chart corresponds to the matched entries of DETs in their own functional category. (C) Principal component analysis (PCA) analysis of global gene expression in hemocytes and fat body in response to the infections. Six samples were analyzed, including Bb-affected fat body (FB_Bb) and hemocytes (HC_Bb), Ec-affected fat body (FB_Ec) and hemocytes (HC_Ec), control fat body (FB_Mock) and hemocytes (HC_Mock). (D) Distribution of H. armigera immunity-related transcripts in categories of recognition, signaling, regulation, and effectors.