The clip-domain serine protease-related proteins (CLIPs) and serpins of H. armigera. (A) Phylogenetic analysis of CLIPs. The amino acid sequences of 12 H. armigera (Ha), 9 D. melanogaster (Dm), 8 B. mori (Bm), 3 M. sexta (Ms), 3 H. diomphalia (Hd), 4 A. aegypti (Aa), and 8 A. gambiae (Ag) CLIPs are compared and divided into four groups (A ~ D) based on sequence similarity. Scale bar, 0.1 substitutions per site. (B) Phylogenetic analysis of serpins. The amino acid sequences of 22 Ha, 11 Tc, 9 Dm, 18 Bm, 6 Ms, and 5 Am serpins are examined. The clade showing expansion compared with B. mori is shaded yellow. Scale bar, 0.1 substitutions per site. The red dots at nodes denote bootstrap values greater than 800 from 1,000 trials.