Expression patterns of the H. armigera immunity-related genes. (A) Cluster analysis. Expression profiles of immunity-related genes data are organized into three groups: recognition, signaling, and effectors. Fat bodies and hemocytes are extracted from H. armigera larvae infected by Bb 48 post infection and Ec 6 post infection respectively. Six datasets were included: FB_Mock, FB_Bb, FB_Ec, HC_Mock, HC_Bb, HC_Ec. Gene families and functional pathways (Toll, IMD) are categorized within the group. Gene names are shown on the right side. (B) Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the H. armigera immunity-related gene expression in hemocytes and fat body of the fifth instar larvae after B. bassiana (48 h) and E. cloacae (6 h) injection. H. armigera ribosomal protein S3 (rps3) was used as an internal standard to normalize the templates. The relative mRNA levels are represented as the mean ± S.D. (n = 3). *, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01. FB_Mock, control fat body; FB_Bb, fungus-induced fat body; FB_Ec, bacterium-induced fat body; HC_Mock, control hemocytes; HC_Bb, fungus-induced hemocytes; HC_Ec, bacterium-induced hemocytes.