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Table 1 Mean (±SE, n = 7) VOC emission rates measured from the bark surface of the intact control and the Hylobius -damaged Scots pine saplings a

From: Activation of defence pathways in Scots pine bark after feeding by pine weevil (Hylobius abietis)

Emission (ng h −1m −2 (bark area)) Control Damage p -value
Monoterpenes    
 α-PineneT (16.1 ± 9.4)∙103 (10 ± 3.1)∙103 0.597
 CampheneU (8.4 ± 5.5)∙102 (8.6 ± 3.4) ∙102 0.674
 SabineneU 0 ± 0b (1.7 ± 1.7)∙103 1.000
 β-PineneU 0 ± 0b 89 ± 73 0.462
 3-CareneT (4.9 ± 2.1)∙103 (28.7 ± 12.3)∙103 0.007
 LimoneneT (2.2 ± 1.1)∙103 (15.9 ± 8.1)∙103 0.013
 β-PhellandreneU 84 ± 67 (4.3 ± 3.3)∙103 0.510
 1,8-CineoleU 0 ± 0b (3.9 ± 2.8)∙102 0.192
 CamphorU 0 ± 0b (4.7 ± 2.1)∙102 0.070
 Bornyl acetateT (4.8 ± 2)∙102 (7.1 ± 1.9)∙102 0.429
 Total monoterpenes T (24.6 ± 11.7)∙103 (62.7 ± 27.8)∙103 0.060
Sesquiterpenes    
 β-SelineneU (2 ± 1)∙102 (3.6 ± 1.1)∙102 0.185
 LongicycleneU 0 ± 0b (5.8 ± 1.4)∙102 0.001
 LongifoleneT (21.6 ± 7)∙102 (8 ± 2.6)∙103 0.038
trans-β-caryophylleneU 0 ± 0b (5.7 ± 3)∙103 0.021
trans-β-farneseneU 0 ± 0b (21.2 ± 8.4)∙102 0.021
 AromadendreneU (2.9 ± 1.4)∙102 (3.4 ± 3)∙103 0.371
 α-MuuroleneU 0 ± 0b (4.1 ± 0.91)∙102 0.005
 α-FarneseneU 0 ± 0b (4.5 ± 2.7)∙102 0.192
 δ-CadineneU 0 ± 0b (6 ± 1.8)∙102 0.021
Total sesquiterpenes T (26.2 ± 8.6)∙102 (21.6 ± 5.9)∙103 0.001
NonanalT (61.4 ± 21.9)∙103 (13.5 ± 2.9)∙104 0.022
Methyl salicylateT (50.5 ± 17.7)∙103 (9.7 ± 1.7)∙104 0.082
Total VOCsT (13.9 ± 4.9) ∙104 (31.6 ± 2.6)∙104 0.008
  1. aStatistical analysis was performed by Independent Sample T-Test (compounds marked with T) and by Mann–Whitney U test (compounds marked with U). bZero values indicate emission rates below the detection limit. Emboldened values indicate statistical significance. VOC emission data was temperature standardized at 30°C.