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Table 1 Fungal species that cause trunk diseases of grapevine and the symptoms associated with each disease

From: Distinctive expansion of gene families associated with plant cell wall degradation, secondary metabolism, and nutrient uptake in the genomes of grapevine trunk pathogens

Species Disease Symptoms
E. lata Eutypa dieback V-shaped wood cankers in spurs, cordons and/or trunk (Fig. 1a). Stunted shoots with shortened internodes and small, chlorotic, cupped tattered leaves, showing marginal necrosis and dead interveinal tissue (Fig. 1b). Also, causes general canopy symptoms of shoot dieback and dead spurs.
Dip. seriata, N. parvum Botryosphaeria dieback V- or irregular-shaped wood cankers in canes, spurs, cordons and/or trunk (Fig. 1a). Also, causes general canopy symptoms of shoot dieback and dead spurs. Can kill buds on infected canes.
Dia. ampelina Phomopsis dieback V- or irregular-shaped wood cankers in canes, spurs, cordons and/or trunk (Fig. 1a). Also, causes general canopy symptoms of shoot dieback and dead spurs.
Can kill buds on infected canes.
Phomopsis cane and leaf spot is thought to be a separate disease, but is also caused by Dia. ampelina. The pathogen directly attacks all green tissues of the vine, causing necrotic lesions on the leaves, green stems, and fruit.
T. minima, P. chlamydospora, F. mediterranea, S. hirsutum Esca disease complex Black spots (aka “measles”) on berries (Fig. 1c).
Interveinal chlorosis and necrosis of the leaves (Fig. 1d). Dark spots that form in concentric rings (appears as dark lines in longitudinal section) in the wood (Fig. 1e).
White-rotted wood, due to secondary infection by basidiomycetes F. mediterranea and S. hirsutum, sometimes co-occurs in the trunks of vines also infected by the Esca pathogens T. minima and P. chlamydospora (Fig. 1f). However, these fungi are not responsible for fruit or leaf symptoms of Esca.
  1. The fungi selected for this study are the most widespread and/or virulent species associated with each trunk disease; this table is not an exhaustive list of all trunk pathogens associated with each trunk disease