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Table 2 Circadian clock gene acronyms, names, and function

From: Evolutionary divergence of core and post-translational circadian clock genes in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

Abbreviation Gene name Clock function (See Fig. 1) Reference
CkIα casein kinase Iα paralog of dbt Fig. 4b
CkIIα casein kinase IIα promotes nuclear localization of PER-DBT-TIM via phosphorylation of TIM [2527]
Clk Clock transcription factor promoting transcription of per, tim, cry2, vri, PDP1, cwo [2527, 118]
Cul3 Cullin 3 ubiquitinates TIM leading to its degradation [30]
cwo clockwork orange acts synergisticly with PER to inhibit CLK-mediated gene activation [25, 119, 120]
cry cryptochrome 1, cry1, dcry photoreceptor; complexes with SGG & TIM to mediate light-input pathway into the clock [25, 26]
cry2 cryptochrome 2, mcry transcription regulator of Clk & cyc in insects other than Drosophila [25, 27]
cyc cycle transcription factor promoting transcription of per, tim, cry2, Pdp1, vri [2527]
dbt doubltime = dco, discs overgrown major regulator of PER & CLK through phosphorylation [2527, 31]
jet jetlag promotes light-induced proteosomal degradation of TIM & CRY1 [27, 33, 121]
kayα kayakα Inhibits VRI suppression of Clk promoter; represses CLK activity [127]
nmo nemo phosphorylates PER, enhances action of DBT; phosphorylates CLK [25, 29, 31, 123]
Pdp1 PAR-domain protein 1 Likely in combination with VRI enhances Clk transcription and clk mRNA amplitude [2527, 118]
per period negative transcription regulator of Clk & cyc transcription after transport to nucleus as phosphorylated PER-TIM-DBT complex [25, 27]
phr6-4 (6–4)-photolyase paralog of cry1 & cry2 [17], Fig. 3
PP2A-B’ protein phosphatase 2A, regulatory B subunit regulates phosphorylation of PER; counter-balances PER & TIM phosphorylation by DBT [2527, 31]
sgg shaggy phosphorylates TIM, in concert with CRY1 & light; regulates PER phosphorylation-dephosphorylation; promotes PER nuclear localization [2527, 31]
slimb supernumerary limbs phosphorylates PER & TIM, leading to their degradation [2527, 124]
tim timeless binds to & facilitates transport of heterodimeric PER into the nucleus; interacts with JET, SGG & CRY to regulate the input of light; increases CKIIα phosphorylation of PER [25, 125]
tim2 timeout paralog of TIM; necessary for laval survivorshiop; promotes chromosomal stability; enhancs photoreception. [122, 126]
vri vrille transcription inhibitor of Clk [2527, 118]