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Table 2 Circadian clock gene acronyms, names, and function

From: Evolutionary divergence of core and post-translational circadian clock genes in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii

Abbreviation

Gene name

Clock function (See Fig. 1)

Reference

CkIα

casein kinase Iα

paralog of dbt

Fig. 4b

CkIIα

casein kinase IIα

promotes nuclear localization of PER-DBT-TIM via phosphorylation of TIM

[2527]

Clk

Clock

transcription factor promoting transcription of per, tim, cry2, vri, PDP1, cwo

[2527, 118]

Cul3

Cullin 3

ubiquitinates TIM leading to its degradation

[30]

cwo

clockwork orange

acts synergisticly with PER to inhibit CLK-mediated gene activation

[25, 119, 120]

cry

cryptochrome 1, cry1, dcry

photoreceptor; complexes with SGG & TIM to mediate light-input pathway into the clock

[25, 26]

cry2

cryptochrome 2, mcry

transcription regulator of Clk & cyc in insects other than Drosophila

[25, 27]

cyc

cycle

transcription factor promoting transcription of per, tim, cry2, Pdp1, vri

[2527]

dbt

doubltime = dco, discs overgrown

major regulator of PER & CLK through phosphorylation

[2527, 31]

jet

jetlag

promotes light-induced proteosomal degradation of TIM & CRY1

[27, 33, 121]

kayα

kayakα

Inhibits VRI suppression of Clk promoter; represses CLK activity

[127]

nmo

nemo

phosphorylates PER, enhances action of DBT; phosphorylates CLK

[25, 29, 31, 123]

Pdp1

PAR-domain protein 1

Likely in combination with VRI enhances Clk transcription and clk mRNA amplitude

[2527, 118]

per

period

negative transcription regulator of Clk & cyc transcription after transport to nucleus as phosphorylated PER-TIM-DBT complex

[25, 27]

phr6-4

(6–4)-photolyase

paralog of cry1 & cry2

[17], Fig. 3

PP2A-B’

protein phosphatase 2A, regulatory B subunit

regulates phosphorylation of PER; counter-balances PER & TIM phosphorylation by DBT

[2527, 31]

sgg

shaggy

phosphorylates TIM, in concert with CRY1 & light; regulates PER phosphorylation-dephosphorylation; promotes PER nuclear localization

[2527, 31]

slimb

supernumerary limbs

phosphorylates PER & TIM, leading to their degradation

[2527, 124]

tim

timeless

binds to & facilitates transport of heterodimeric PER into the nucleus; interacts with JET, SGG & CRY to regulate the input of light; increases CKIIα phosphorylation of PER

[25, 125]

tim2

timeout

paralog of TIM; necessary for laval survivorshiop; promotes chromosomal stability; enhancs photoreception.

[122, 126]

vri

vrille

transcription inhibitor of Clk

[2527, 118]