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Fig. 1 | BMC Genomics

Fig. 1

From: Rapid Increase in frequency of gene copy-number variants during experimental evolution in Caenorhabditis elegans

Fig. 1

Illustration of Caenorhabditis elegans experimental evolution study with mutation accumulation (MA) and adaptive recovery phases. a The MA experiment was initiated by establishing 74 lines descended from a single, mated fog-2 female whose additional descendants were expanded for several generations and frozen as ancestral, pre-MA controls. Each generation, the MA regime comprised (i) population bottlenecks of one random female worm and two male siblings (N e  = ~2.67) per generation, and (ii) RNAi-mediated knockdown of the mismatch repair gene msh-2. The MA experiment with msh-2 RNAi was terminated at 50 generations and extant MA lines were subjected to 15 additional generations of full-sib mating without msh-2 RNAi to maximize homozygosity. b To enable fitness/adaptive recovery of mutationally degraded lines, five MA lines (MA7, 16, 19, 50 and 66) exhibiting the greatest decline in fitness following the MA regime were expanded into five sublines (A-E) and independently maintained at large population sizes in the absence of msh-2 RNAi. New generations were established every four days by agar chunk transfers that enabled maintenance of large population sizes across generations. For simplicity, the fitness recovery phase displayed in the figure only depicts population expansion for one MA line and its five descendant sublines, A-E

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