Skip to main content

Table 1 Chemicals and field mixtures associated with the exposure experiments considered in the current study

From: Fish connectivity mapping: linking chemical stressors by their mechanisms of action-driven transcriptomic profiles

Chemicals/field mixtures Use/source Putative MIE References
1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMB) Ingredient in consumer products --- ---
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Industrial byproduct aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonist [48]
2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) Antiseptic agent, pesticide, industrial chemical Uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation ---
benz(a)anthracene (BAA) Fossil fuels DNA mutagen and Ah receptor agonist (PAH) [49]
perfluorinated chemicals (PFC) Industrial chemical --- ---
tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) Ingredient in consumer products --- ---
Phenanthrene (PHE) Fossil fuels DNA mutagen and Ah receptor agonist (PAH) [49]
Pyrene (PYR) Fossil fuels DNA mutagen and Ah receptor agonist (PAH) [49]
decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE) Flame retardant   ---
dibenzothiophene (DBT) Fossil fuels DNA mutagen and Ah receptor agonist (PAH) [49]
17ß-estradiol (E2) Endogenous estrogen ER agonist [18]
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) medicine ER agonist ---
ethniyl estradiol (EE2) medicine ER agonist [18]
fadrozol (FAD) medicine CYP19 inhibitor [18]
fipronil (FIP) insecticide GABA receptor antagonist [18]
flutamide (FLU) medicine Androgen receptor antagonist [18]
genistein (GEN) phytoestrogen ER and PPAR agonist [50]
ketochonazole (KET) medicine CYP11A/CYP17 inhibitor [18]
trenbolone (TRB) Beef production AR agonist [18]
trilostane (TRI) Veterinary medicine 3βHSD inhibitor [18]
vinclozolin (VIN) fungicide AR antagonist (fungicide) [18]
prochloraz (PRO) fungicide CYP17/19 inhibitor [18]
muscimol (MUS) research GABA receptor agonist [18]
bisphenol A (BPA) Industrial chemical ER agonist [51]
Progesterone (PGST) Endogenous hormone, medicine PR agonist [52]
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) Endogenous hormone AR agonist [53]
Haloperidol (HAL) medicine Dopamine D2 receptor antagonist [54]
Diazepam (DIA) medicine GABA-A receptor modulator [55]
bifenthrin (BIF) insecticide voltage-gated sodium channels disruption [56]
cypermethrin (CYP) insecticide voltage-gated sodium channels disruption [56]
esfenvalerate (ESF) Insecticide voltage-gated sodium channels disruption [56]
Linuron (LIN) Herbicide photosynthesis inhibitor [57]
Terbufos (TER) Insecticide acetylcholine esterase inhibitor [58]
methylparaben (MPA) Anti-fungal agent Uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation [59]
permethrin (PER) Insecticide voltage-gated sodium channels disruption [56]
Propanil (PPL) Herbicide photosynthesis inhibitor [60]
azinphos-methyl (APM) Insecticide acetylcholine esterase inhibitor [61]
Propranolol (PPLL) Medicine β-adrenergic receptor antagonist [62]
protein kinase C inhibitor 412 (PKC412) Pharmaceutical compound tyrosine kinase inhibitor [63]
Triclocarban (TCC) Anti-bacterial agent --- ---
Gemfibrozil (GEM) Medicine PPAR binding and activation [64]
cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) Explosive Neuro-toxin? ---
TNT Explosive --- ---
Water samples near WWTPs    
Effluent; WWTP, San Diego, California (EFFLa, EFFHa) Positive for GEM, DIA, E2, PGST --- [29]
Effluent; WWTP, Los Angeles, California (EFFHb) Positive for GEM, PGST --- [29]
Effluent; WWTP, Duluth Minnesota (WLSSD) Positive for various estrogens, BPA --- Unpublished observations (Jenna Cavallin US EPA)
Upstream, effluent, downstream, WWTP, Ely Minnesota (ElyUS, ElyEFF, ElyDS) At least one site positive for various estrogens, BPA, TCC, PAHs, chlorpyrifos --- [30]
Upstream, effluent, downstream, WWTP, Hutchinson Minnesota (HutUS, HutEFF, HutDS) At least one site positive for various estrogens, DES, BPA, TCC, PAHs, chlorpyrifos --- [30]
Upstream, effluent, downstream, WWTP, Rochester Minnesota (RochUS, RochEFF, RochDS) At least one site positive for various estrogens, BPA, TCC, --- [30]
storm, stream, waste water; WWTP, Gainesville, Florida (stormH2O, strH2O, wasteH2O) wasteH2O seasonally positive for BPA, DIA, PFCs --- [65]
  1. AR androgen receptor, ER estrogen receptor, GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid, HSD hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, MIE molecular initiating event, PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PR progesterone receptor, PPAR peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor–α, WWTP waste water treatment plant