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Fig. 2 | BMC Genomics

Fig. 2

From: Lactation undernutrition leads to multigenerational molecular programming of hypothalamic gene networks controlling reproduction

Fig. 2

Effects of undernutrition (LUN) from birth to weaning at 21 days of age on body composition, puberty attainment, pregnancy rates and litter sizes in F1 progeny. Body weight and adiposity index (fat mass/lean mass [FM/LM]) in female (a) and male (b) progeny. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Means with different superscripts differ significantly (small letters – control (CON), capital letters – LUN). Asterisks indicate difference between nutritional protocols for the same day of age (Two-way ANOVA; ****, P < 0.0001). Timing of vaginal opening (VO; c), vaginal estrus (VE; c), number of estrus before breeding (at 55 days of age; c), and timing of balano preputial separation (BPS; d) in control (CON) and LUN mice (statistical significance was calculated by t test). Number of pregnant females and litter parameters in first and second pregnancy (e) for each breeding pair (CON ♀ x CON ♂, CON ♀ x LUN ♂, LUN ♀ x CON ♂, LUN ♀ x LUN ♂)

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