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Fig. 7 | BMC Genomics

Fig. 7

From: Lactation undernutrition leads to multigenerational molecular programming of hypothalamic gene networks controlling reproduction

Fig. 7

Undernutrition (LUN) in F1 generation affects body composition and puberty attainment in F2 offspring. Body weight and adiposity index (fat mass/lean mass [FM/LM]) in female (a) and male (b) progeny. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Means with different superscripts differ significantly within the same day of age. Asterisks indicate difference between days in each breeding protocol (Two-way ANOVA; *, P < 0.05, **, P < 0.01, ****, P < 0.0001). All comparisons of body weights between days in each breeding protocol (CxC, CxL, LxC, LxL) were significant (P < 0.0001). Timing of vaginal opening (VO; c), vaginal estrus (VE; c) and balano preputial separation (BPS; d) in F2 progeny, generated in different breeding protocol. Means (blue line) with different superscripts differ significantly (statistical significance was calculated by One-way ANOVA). C – CON (F1 control progeny), L – LUN (F1 progeny undernourished during lactation)

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