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Table 10 Amino acid positions discussed in literature from the models of both the subtypes for all proteins

From: Identification of combinatorial host-specific signatures with a potential to affect host adaptation in influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes

Protein Positions Description
M1 115,121,137 Known signatures of host-adaptation [19, 22, 23]
30,142,207,209 Affecting viral production on mutation [27]
121 Affecting viral replication [45]
101 Determinant of temperature sensitivity [46], located in a transcription inhibition site [47] and is also interacting with NEP [48]
M2 11,14,18,20,28,55,57,78,82,89,93 Known signatures of host-adaptation [19, 22, 23, 49]
31 S31N is a known marker for amantadine resistance [2831]
18,20 Lie next to 17,19 which forms a di-sulphide bond [50]
NS1 18,21,22,53,60,70,81,112,114,171,215,227 Known signatures of host-adaptation [18, 2023, 51]
215 Required for Crk/CrL-SH3 binding [52]
123 Necessary for interaction with PKR, resulting in an inhibition of eIF2alpha phosphorylation [53]
95 Along with others, has been shown to be necessary for binding p85beta and activating PI3K signaling [54, 55]
220 Part of nuclear localization signal 2 essential for the importin-alpha binding [56]
NEP(NS2) 57,60,70,107 Known signatures of host-adaptation [18, 19, 22, 23, 57]
NP 16,33,100,214,283,313,351,353,357,422 Known signatures of host-adaptation [1923, 58]
16 D16G shown to decrease pathogenicity several fold [59]
PA 28,55,57,65,256,268,277,356,382,400,409 Known signatures of host-adaptation [1923, 58]
85,336 Residues 85I and 336 M are deemed important for enhanced polymerase activity in mammalian cells [60]
57,65,85 Shown to be involved in suppressing the host cell protein synthesis during infection [61]
PB1 52,179,216,298,327,336,361,375,581,741 Known signatures of host-adaptation [17, 19, 22, 23, 58]
581 Shown to be conferring temperature sensitivity to human influenza virus vaccine strains [62]
473 Mutation at position 473 has been shown to decrease polymerase activity [63]
PB2 9,44,64,81,105,271,292,368,453,588,613,682,684 Known signatures of host-adaptation [19, 20, 22, 23, 58]
591 591Q is known to mimic the effect of 627 K [64, 65]
271 271A shown to increase polymerase activity in mammalian cells [66]
271,588 Also been shown to be host range determinants [67]
PB1-F2 16,23,42,66,70,73,76 Known signatures of host-adaptation [18, 23]
66 Linked with affecting pathogenicity [68]
NA 46,47,74,147,157,341,351 Under selection pressure with a shift of hosts from birds to humans [58]
344 Calcium ion binds here that stabilizes the molecule (UniProt: Q9IGQ6).
HA 2,6,9,10,14 Signal peptide domain
88,173,220,22 Position 71, 159, 206 and 208 of the fully-mature HA with H3-numbering [69]) are part of the antigenic sites Cb, Sb and Ca of the HA protein, respectively [70, 71]