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Table 2 Comparison of essential metabolic pathways among Cryptosporidium spp. and other common apicomplexan parasitesa

From: Evolution of mitosome metabolism and invasion-related proteins in Cryptosporidium

Category Metabolic pathway Cpar Chom Cubi Cand Pfal Tgon
Carbohydrate and energy metabolism Glycolysis + + + + + +
Methylcitrate cycle - - - - - +
TCA cycle - - - + + +
Pentose phosphate pathway - - - - + +
Shikimate biosynthesis - - - - + +
Folate biosynthesis - - - - + +
Synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin/dihydrobiopterin/molybdopterin - - - - - +
Galactose metabolism - - - - - +
Synthesis of starch + + + + - +
Synthesis of trehalose + + + + - +
Synthesis of 1,3-beta-glucan - - - - - +
UDP-Glc < - > UDP-Gal + + + + - +
GDP-Man < - > GDP-Fuc - - - - + +
UDP-Glc - > UDP-GlcA - > UDP-Xyl + + + + - -
Synthesis of mannitol from fructose + + + + - -
Fatty acid biosynthesis in cytosol (FAS I) + + + + - +
Fatty acid biosynthesis in apicoplast (FAS II) - - - - + +
Fatty acid degradation - - - - - +
Oxidative phosphorylation (NADH dehydrogenase) + + + + + +
Oxidative phosphorylation (Complex II) - - - + + +
Oxidative phosphorylation (Complex III) - - - 1 subunit + +
Oxidative phosphorylation (Complex IV) - - - - + +
F-ATPase 2 subunit 2 subunit 2 subunit + + +
Alternative oxidase (AOX) + + + + - -
Glyoxalase metabolism producing D-lactate - - - - + +
Synthesis of isoprene (MEP/DOXP) - - - - + +
Synthesis of farnesyl/polyprenyl diphosphate + + - + + +
Nucleotide metabolism Synthesis of purine rings de novo - - - - - -
IMP - > XMP - > GMP + + + - + +
Synthesis of pyrimidine de novo - - - - + +
Amino acid metabolism Synthesis of alanine from pyruvate - - - - - +
Synthesis of glutamate from nitrite/nitrate - - - - + +
Conversion from glutamate to glutamine + + + + + +
Synthesis of aspartate from oxaloacetate and glutamate - - - - + +
Conversion from aspartate to asparagine + + + - + +
Conversion from glutamate to proline + + + + - +
Synthesis of serine from glycerate/glycerol phosphate - - - - - +
Conversion from serine to cysteine - - - - - +
Conversion from serine to glycine + + + + + +
Recycle homocysteine into methionine - - - - + +
Synthesis of lysine from aspartate - - - - - +
Synthesis of threonine from aspartate - - - - - +
Synthesis of ornithine from arginine - - - - + -
Synthesis of ornithine from proline - - - - + +
Synthesis of polyamine from ornithine - - - - + -
Polyamine pathway backward + + + + - +
Degradation of branch-chain amino acids - - - - - +
Synthesis of tryptophan + + + - - -
Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) - - - - - +
Vitamin and others Synthesis of ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) + + - + + +
Synthesis of Fe-S cluster + + + + + +
Synthesis of heme - - - - + +
Synthesis of thiamine (Vitamin B1) - - - - + -
Conversion from thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) - - - - + +
Synthesis of FMN/FAD from riboflavin - - - - + +
Synthesis of pyridoxal phosphate (Vitamin B6) de novo - - - - + +
Synthesis of NAD(P) + de novo from nicotinate/nicotinamide - - - - + +
Synthesis of pantothenate from valine - - - - - +
Synthesis of CoA from pantothenate + + + + + +
Synthesis of lipoic acid de novo in apicoplast - - - - + +
Salvage of lipoic acid in mitochondria - - - + + +
Synthesis of porphyrin/cytochrome proteins - - - - + +
  1. aPlus symbol denotes that the essential enzymes for the pathway were identified, whereas minus symbol denotes that the essential enzymes for pathways were absent
  2. Cpar Cryptosporidium parvum, Chom C. hominis, Cubi C. ubiquitum, Cand C. andersoni, Pfal Plasmodium falciparum Pfal, Tgon Toxoplasma gondii