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Table 10 Current status of breeding technologies in U.S. commercial aquaculture

From: Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: current status, challenges, and priorities for future research

Species Status
Catfish Private sector efforts to conduct genetic enhancement programs appear to have been successful, but the private sector has not made a great effort in genetics and breeding. Currently, some on-farm selection is practiced, but not in a very controlled manner. Genetic improvement is primarily conducted by public sector research programs, which has resulted in 7 releases to the industry of varying impacts. Most of these fish populations were developed by mass selection and in some cases family selection with the most emphasis on growth rate. Advanced genomic tools and technologies are available but have yet to be implemented by industry.
The industry has widely adopted the channel female x blue male interspecific catfish hybrid which demonstrates significantly greater performance for numerous traits in comparison to the traditionally grown channel catfish with hybrids now comprising 60–70% of the industry. The vast majority of hybrids are produced with a single line of blue catfish.
Atlantic salmon Private sector breeding is integrated with a publicly funded research program. Genetic improvement is based on quantitative genetics to improve growth, fillet quality and disease traits. Due to international interest in this species advanced genome tools and technologies are widely available, their implementation in the U.S. was recently initiated in a public/private partnership with efforts to incorporate MAS for sea lice resistance.
In 2015 the AquAdvantage Salmon was approved for sale in the U.S. by FDA, however it is expected to reach the marketplace in 2017.
Rainbow trout Public sector breeding programs utilize quantitative genetics to select for growth performance and disease resistance in all-female populations. Chromosome set manipulation is used to provide all-female triploids for net pen operations that require sterile fish; they are also valued for their superior growth characteristics at larger sizes.
Publically funded research programs have released germplasm improved for growth and disease resistance characteristics. Advanced genome tools and technologies are widely available and have been implemented into the private sector. Proof of concept studies for genomic selection for disease resistance in a research population have motivated initial implementation in a commercial breeding population.
Tilapia Private sector family based breeding for Nile tilapia for improved growth, yield and disease resistance is enhanced through publicly funded research programs. Although genome tools and technologies are available, they have not yet been implemented by the private sector.
Striped bass Private sector fingerling producers incorporate germplasm from wild caught and captive (domestic) populations. Significant genetic improvement has been achieved through the production of hybrids created primarily by crossing domestic striped bass males x domestic or wild caught white bass females, with parental species improvement achieved primarily via mass selection techniques. Genomic technologies are under development and have not yet incorporated into commercial breeding, although domestic striped bass and white bass are available through a publically funded research program.
Oysters The Pacific oyster industry is supported through public and private programs for ploidy manipulation, family-based selection and crossbreeding. Polyploid and improved broodstocks are widely used by the U.S. West Coast industry. Genetic improvement of the eastern oyster is publically funded. For much of the past 40 years, improvements in eastern oyster growth and survival have been realized using mass-selection techniques; however, there has been a recent shift toward applying quantitative genetics and ploidy manipulation to enhance production traits. Broodstock from these breeding programs are widely used by the private sector in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic. Genome tools for both oyster species are coming online, but have not yet been implemented.
Shrimp Shrimp breeders in the public and private sector selectively breed to produce specific pathogen resistant shrimp.