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Table 1 Effects of diet on physiological parameters and circulating cytokines

From: Long-lasting effect of obesity on skeletal muscle transcriptome

Parameters Before WSD (Chow) After WSD After CR WSD vs Chow WSD vs CR Chow vs CR
Appetite and activity
 Caloric intake, % of chow 99.7 ± 6.4 215.4 ± 19.1 ND p < 0.01 ND ND
 Activity (count/day) 28624.7 ± 6842.7 33545.2 ± 5650.0 26284.0 ± 6794.2 NS NS NS
Body composition
 Weight (kg) 11.5 ± 0.6 15.1 ± 1.1 12.5 ± 1.1 p < 0.01 p < 0.01 NS
 Body fat (g) 2040.3 ± 357.0 5855.4 ± 881.0 3934.2 ± 820.7 p < 0.01 p < 0.001 p < 0.05
 Lean mass (g) 9028.2 ± 354.9 8793.9 ± 437.7 8179.4 ± 443.6 NS NS p < 0.01
Glucose homeostasis
 AUC glucose (mg/dl) 6823.1 ± 440.0 8751.5 ± 718.5 6735.3 ± 538.5 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 NS
 AUC insulin (mg/dl) 4750 ± 647.2 10404 ± 2078.9 7273.6 ± 1869.3 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 NS
 Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 63.5 ± 7.2 63.6 ± 4.0 65.5 ± 2.8 NS NS NS
 Fasting insulin (mg/dl) 21.5 ± 7.8 58.5 ± 12.2 29.5 ± 6.6 p < 0.01 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
 HbA1c, percent 6.02 ± 0.15 6.92 ± 0.23 6.35 ± 0.19 p < 0.001 p < 0.05 NS
 HOMA-IR 4.05 ± 1.86 9.7 ± 2.55 4.9 ± 1.3 p < 0.01 p < 0.05 NS
Serum cytokines
 IL6, % of chow 100 ± 0.0 68.9 ± 10.0 120.2 ± 7.7 NS p < 0.01 NS
 IL-8, % of chow 100 ± 0.0 73.5 ± 13.2 59.6 ± 11.6 p < 0.001 NS p < 0.001
 Eotaxin, % of chow 100 ± 0.0 60.7 ± 6.9 49.5 ± 3.6 p < 0.001 NS p < 0.001
 MIF Analyte, % of chow 100 ± 0.0 212.8 ± 64.4 472.9 ± 110.2 NS p < 0.05 p < 0.01
PAI-1, ng/ml 104.2 ± 5.08 121.2 ± 4.73 125.2 ± 5.33 p < 0.05 NS p < 0.01
  1. Following 2 months on ad libitum chow diet, animals were provided with ad libitum access to a WSD for 6 months, and then switched back to chow, while being calorically restricted to 70% of individual baseline values. Body composition and glucose homeostasis were assessed before WSD (Chow), 6 months after WSD, and 4 months after CR. Serum cytokine and PAI-1 levels were determined before WSD, 4 months after WSD, and 4 months after CR. Daily caloric intake was determined during chow and WSD periods. Daily caloric intake and serum cytokine levels are presented as normalized a percent of baseline values. Values are Means ± SEM, n = 6. Statistical significance was determined using repeated-measure one-way ANOVA. ND not determined, NS not significant