Artemisinin resistant and sensitive parasites have unique metabolite transport capabilities. a Transport differences: Resistant parasites exhibit greater metabolic flexibility, allowing either import or biosynthesis of putrescine, p-aminobenzoate, adenosyl-methionine into the parasite’s cytoplasm (grey). Sensitive parasites rely on import only Import or synthesis of ATP, ADP, and phosphate into the apicoplast (green organelle) is essential for sensitive parasites. Resistant parasites require transport of oxygen, fumarate, oxaloacetate, NADP, NADPH, tetrahydrofolate (thf), NH4, and glycine into the mitochondria, in yellow.
b p-aminobenzoate in glycolysis: Resistant parasites generate p-aminobenzoate via alternative components of the glycolysis pathway. Arrows colored for flux via FVA and stars for essentiality. FVA, flux variability analysis