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Table 1 Strains analysed in this study

From: Whole genome analysis reveals the diversity and evolutionary relationships between necrotic enteritis-causing strains of Clostridium perfringens

Strain Toxinotype netB+ Source Associated Disease Country Genome sequence Clade Reference Accession
0522A_28_397 A Human unknown USA + NP NCBI MKXR0000000.1
1207_CPER A Hospital unknown USA + NP [81] JVYV0000000
2789STDY A Human No Disease + NP Sanger CYYX0000000
94–5224 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA This study a
96–7415 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 3 This study PJTF00000000
98.78718–2 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis DEN + 1B [25] PJTE00000000
ATCC3626 B Lamb + NP [18] ABDV0000000
ATCC13124 A Human Gas Gangrene + NP [14] CP000246
BER-NE332 A Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 [25] PJTD00000000
CP41 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis CAN + 1A [23] LIYI0000000
EHE-NE3 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS [82] a
EHE-NE4 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS [82] a
EHE-NE51 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS [82] a
EHE-NE7 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 2 [82] PJTC00000000
EHE-NE181 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 1B [10] CP025501
EHE-NE20 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS [10] a
EUR-NE151 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 1B [10] PJTB00000000
F262 A Cow Bovine abomastis CAN + NP [11] AFES0000000
F4969 A Human non-food-borne diarrhoea Europe + NP [18] ABDX0000000
FC1 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA This study a
FC2 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 1B This study PJTA00000000
FORC_003 A Human Food poisoning SKR + NP FORC CP009557
FORC_025 A Human Food poisoning SKR + NP FORC CP013101
GNP-1 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 1A This study PJSZ00000000
ITX1105-12MP A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 1A This study PJSY00000000
JGS1495 C Pig Diarrhoea + NP [18] ABDU0000000
JGS1721 D Sheep Enteritis + NP [18] ABOO0000000
JGS1987 E Cow Enteritis + NP [18] ABDW0000000
JGS41431 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 2 [23]  
JJC A Environment No Disease MY + NP [18] AWRZ0000000
JP55 A Horse Necrotizing enteritis CAN + NP [83] CP010993
JP838 A Dog Necrotizing enteritis CAN + NP [83] CP010994
K473 A Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 This study PJSX00000000
Kendall1 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA This study a
Mugdale 5 A Chicken Healthy AUS [30] a
NAG-NE12 A Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 [82] PJSW00000000
NAG-NE252 A Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 [82]  
NAG-NE311 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 1A [25] PJSV00000000
NCTC 8239 A Human Food poisoning UK + NP [18] ABDY0000000
NobL12 C Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 3 This study PJSU00000000
PBD12 A Chicken Healthy AUS + 4 [30] PJST00000000
PBS4 A Chicken Healthy AUS [30] a
PBS52 A Chicken Healthy AUS + 4 [30] PJSS00000000
PC52 A Chicken Healthy AUS + 4 [30] PJSR00000000
Pennington A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 1A This study PJSQ00000000
SAF-1 A Chicken Healthy AUS + 3 This study PJSP00000000
SM101 A Human Food poisoning UK + NP [14] CP000312
112 A Chicken Healthy BEL + 3 [35] PJSO00000000
132 A Soil Gas gangrene + NP [66] BA000016
371 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis BEL + 2 [35] PJSN00000000
482 A Chicken Necrotic enteritis BEL + 3 [35] PJTN00000000
671 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis BEL + 2 [35] PJSM00000000
SOM-NE341 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 2 [25] PJSL00000000
SOM-NE351 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 2 [25] PJTM00000000
TAM-NE38 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 1A This study PJTL00000000
TAM-NE40 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 1A This study PJSK00000000
SYD-NE41 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 1B This study PJUV00000000
TAM-NE42 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 This study PJSJ00000000
TAM-NE43 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 This study PJTK00000000
TAM-NE46 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 1A This study PJSI00000000
TAM-NE47 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS 1A This study a
T3381 A Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 This study PJTJ00000000
UDE 95–6812 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 1A This study PJTI00000000
W1319 A Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 3 This study PJSH00000000
WAL-14572 A Human No Disease + NP [18] ADLP0000000
Warren1 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis USA + 1A This study PJTH00000000
WER-NE361 A + Chicken Necrotic enteritis AUS + 2 [84] PJTG00000000
  1. 1Isolate has been tested in a disease induction model and demonstrated to be virulent
  2. 2Isolate has been tested in a disease induction model and demonstrated to be avirulent
  3. aThese isolates were not sequenced. They were only used for PFGE analysis