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Table 1 Eighty-five facial traits from 23 frontal, 7 profile, and 16 upper eyelid points

From: Identification of five novel genetic loci related to facial morphology by genome-wide association studies

Size-related variables Shape-related variables
  Abbreviation Description   Abbreviation Description
Face shape (17 traits)     
Widtha zyR-zyL Facial base width Ratio zyR-zyL/goR -goL Facial width ratio of base to chin
goR -goL Lower facial width   zyR-zyL/n-sto Facial ratio of base width to height
obsR-obsL Upper facial width   goR -goL/n-sto Facial ratio of chin width to height
obiR-obiL Middle facial width    
Heightb sn-sto Upper lip height Anglec (A) enR-exR-goR Right facial angle of en-ex-go
n-sto Facial height   (A) enL-exL-goL Left facial angle of en-ex-go
Area (AR) obsR-obsL-obiR-obiL Upper facial area   (A) psR-exR-goR Right facial angle of ps-ex-go
(AR) obiR-obiL-goR -goL Lower facial area   (A) psL-exL-goL Left facial angle of ps-ex-go
    (A) enR-psR-goR Right facial angle of en-ps-go
    (A) enL-psL-goL Left facial angle of en-ps-go
Forehead (10 traits)     
Heightb (V) tr-o Forehead height Anglec (A) m-tr Upper forehead slant angle
(V) m-o Lower forehead height   (A) o-n Brow ridge protrusion angle
(V) tr-m Upper forehead height Ratio mtro-o/t-o Metopion position ratio
(V) o-n Brow ridge height Depth (H) tr-m Upper forehead slant depth
    (H) o-n Brow ridge protrusion
    m-mtro Metopion eminence depth
Eye (15 traits)     
Widtha enR-enL Intercanthal width Anglec (A) exR-psR Right eye angle of ex-ps
exR-exL Outercanthal width   (A) exL-psL Left eye angle of ex-ps
    (A) enR-psR Right eye angle of en-ps
    (A) enL-psL Left eye angle of en-ps
Heightb psR-piR Right palpebral fissure height   (A) enR-psR-exR Right eye angle of en-ps-ex
psL-piL Left palpebral fissure height   (A) enL-psL-exL Left eye angle of en-ps-ex
Length enR-exR Right palpebral fissure length Length psR-exR Eye tail length
enL-exL Left palpebral fissure length Ratio psR-piR/enR-exR Eye ratio of width to height
    (enR-exR + enL-exL)/zyR-zyL Length ratio of eyes to face
Nose (11 traits)     
Widtha sbalR-sbalL Subnasal width Anglec (A) prn-n Nasal bridge angle
Heightb (V) n -sn Frontal nasal height   (A) prn-sn Nasolabial angle
n-sn Profile nasal length   (A) n-prn-sn Profile nasal angle
(V) n-prn Nasal bridge height    
(V) prn-sn Nasal tip height    
Depth (H) n-prn Nasal bridge depth    
(H) prn-sn Nasal tip protrusion    
Area (AR) n-prn-sn Profile nasal area    
Mouth (2 traits)     
Heightb (V) cphR-sto Right upper lip thickness    
(V) cphL-sto Left upper lip thickness    
Upper eyelid (30 traits)     
Widtha (H) er1-ermax Right eyelid peak width Anglec (A) Tan_er1~ 7 Tangent line angle of er1 ~ er7
(H) el1-elmax Left eyelid peak width   (A) Tan_el1~ 7 Tangent line angle of el1 ~ el7
(H) er1-er7 Right eyelid width Ratio (H) er1-ermax/(H) er1-er7 Right eyelid peak position ratio
(H) el1-el7 Left eyelid width   (H) el1-elmax/(H) el1-el7 Left eyelid peak position ratio
    (V) er1-er7/(H) er1-er7 Right eyelid slant
    (V) el1-el7/(H) el1-el7 Left eyelid slant
    (V) er1-ermax/(H) er1-ermax Right eyelid medial slant
    (V) el1-elmax/(H) el1-elmax Left eyelid medial slant
    (V) ermax-er7/(H) ermax-er7 Right eyelid lateral slant
    (V) elmax- el7/(H) elmax- el7 Left eyelid lateral slant
   Curvatured (AC) er1-er7 Right eyelid average curvature
    (MC) er1-er7 Right eyelid maximal curvature
    (AC) el1-el7 Left eyelid average curvature
    (MC) el1-el7 Left eyelid maximal curvature
  1. Trait abbreviations: cph crista philtri, el left upper eyelid, elmax left upper eyelid peak, en endocanthion, er right upper eyelid, ermax right upper eyelid peak, ex exocanthion, go gonion, m metopion, mtro metopion position on tr-o, n nasion, o ophryon, obi otobasion inferius, obs otobasion superius, pi palpebral inferius, prn pronasale, ps palpebral superius, sbal subalare, sn subnasale, sto stomion, tr trichion, zy zygion, (A) angle, (AC) average curvature, (AR) area, (H) horizontal, (MC) maximal curvature, (V) vertical
  2. aWidth refers to the horizontal distance between the two landmarks in a frontal (or lateral) image
  3. bHeight similarly refers to the vertical distance between the two landmarks in a frontal (or lateral) image
  4. cAngle refers to the angle made from the line through two landmarks and a horizontal line in a frontal (or lateral) image
  5. dCurvature indicates the radius of circle at a point n1 in a frontal upper eyelid