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Fig. 3 | BMC Genomics

Fig. 3

From: Diel rewiring and positive selection of ancient plant proteins enabled evolution of CAM photosynthesis in Agave

Fig. 3

Positive selection region in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK1). a Ka/Ks profile of Agave americana (Aa) versus Arabidopsis thaliana (At); b superimposed structures in Aa and At, with the positive selection region highlighted; (c) Ka/Ks profile of Aa versus Oryza sativa (Os); d superimposed structures in Aa and Os, with the positive selection region highlighted; e Ka/Ks profile of Aa versus Zea mays (Zm); f superimposed structures in Aa and Zm. An ATP substrate that may bind to the Aa PPCK1 is marked by an arrow. The proteins are colored in grey for Aa, blue for At, green for Os and red for Zm. g A snapshot of PPCK1 (Aam048341) structure model revealing the positive selected sites. The PPCK1 model bound with an ATP substrate (blue surface) is after a 1-us MD simulation. K42 (codon 124, at the C-end of β3) and N73 (codon219, at the N-end of β4) are located at the two strands connecting to the αC helix, the orientation of which is known to be involved in the activation of the kinase

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