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Table 1 Expression profile of genes from the enriched pathways over time (fold untreated ± S.D., n = 5)

From: Identification of early biological changes in palmitate-treated isolated human islets

Pathway name Gene symbol Gene name 4 h 12 h 1d 2d 7d
Mineral absorption MT1F metallothionein 1F 2.18 ± 0.56* 1.27 ± 0.32 1.36 ± 0.42 1.4 ± 0.33 1.41 ± 0.58
MT2A metallothionein 2A 2.19 ± 0.37* 1.08 ± 0.31 1.23 ± 0.42 1.32 ± 0.48 1.25 ± 0.49
MT1L metallothionein 1 L (gene/pseudogene) 2.2 ± 0.45* 1.21 ± 0.29 1.26 ± 0.23 1.25 ± 0.29 1.17 ± 0.26
MT1A metallothionein 1A 2.34 ± 0.52* 1.11 ± 0.27 1.21 ± 0.2 1.23 ± 0.33 1.2 ± 0.38
MT1E metallothionein 1E 2.58 ± 0.65* 1.19 ± 0.22 1.22 ± 0.21 1.34 ± 0.34 1.3 ± 0.27
MT1M metallothionein 1 M 2.76 ± 0.63* 1.19 ± 0.29 1.25 ± 0.19 1.24 ± 0.27 1.18 ± 0.31
MT1B metallothionein 1B 1.9 ± 0.22* 1.08 ± 0.17 1.11 ± 0.11 1.16 ± 0.2 1.11 ± 0.19
MT1X metallothionein 1X 3.49 ± 1.76* 1.24 ± 0.43 1.33 ± 0.4 1.35 ± 0.42 1.28 ± 0.49
MT1H metallothionein 1H 2.89 ± 1.3* 1.27 ± 0.34 1.32 ± 0.37 1.3 ± 0.31 1.14 ± 0.44
MT1G metallothionein 1G 3.28 ± 1.44* 1.43 ± 0.4 1.48 ± 0.53 1.35 ± 0.4 1.12 ± 0.41
SLC30A1 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter). member 1 1.98 ± 0.44* 1.26 ± 0.21 1.11 ± 0.12 1.24 ± 0.29 1.24 ± 0.25
Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis IARS isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 1.15 ± 0.18 1.58 ± 0.28* 1.25 ± 0.29 1.14 ± 0.17 1.22 ± 0.17
AARS alanyl-tRNA synthetase 1.1 ± 0.13 1.41 ± 0.21* 1.19 ± 0.23 1.04 ± 0.14 1.17 ± 0.11
YARS tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 1.24 ± 0.15 1.49 ± 0.32* 1.28 ± 0.24 1.15 ± 0.11 1.21 ± 0.13
MARS methionyl-tRNA synthetase 1.17 ± 0.17 1.62 ± 0.33* 1.25 ± 0.24 1.12 ± 0.14 1.19 ± 0.16
EPRS glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase 1.09 ± 0.13 1.37 ± 0.12* 1.12 ± 0.2 1.09 ± 0.19 1.16 ± 0.11
GARS glycyl-tRNA synthetase 1.3 ± 0.18* 1.56 ± 0.37* 1.38 ± 0.22* 1.22 ± 0.17 1.3 ± 0.16
PPAR signaling CPT1A carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A 1.25 ± 0.1* 1.4 ± 0.09* 1.32 ± 0.18* 1.21 ± 0.08 1.2 ± 0.12
SCD stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) 1.03 ± 0.09 1.46 ± 0.16* 1.56 ± 0.22* 1.6 ± 0.21* 2 ± 0.33*
ACSL1 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 1.3 ± 0.1* 1.47 ± 0.16* 1.51 ± 0.15* 1.44 ± 0.11* 1.2 ± 0.19
ANGPTL4 angiopoietin-like 4 1.4 ± 0.19* 1.42 ± 0.19* 1.47 ± 0.33* 1.53 ± 0.31* 1.37 ± 0.26
ME1 malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic 1.15 ± 0.13 1.52 ± 0.25* 1.47 ± 0.31* 1.26 ± 0.27 1.52 ± 0.32*
SLC27A2 solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2 1.25 ± 0.14 1.36 ± 0.21* 1.27 ± 0.2 1.23 ± 0.16 1.61 ± 0.4*
GK glycerol kinase 1.04 ± 0.09 1.28 ± 0.13* 1.34 ± 0.24* 0.98 ± 0.09 0.95 ± 0.13
Adipocytokine signaling CPT1A carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A 1.25 ± 0.1* 1.4 ± 0.09* 1.32 ± 0.18* 1.21 ± 0.08 1.2 ± 0.12
ACSL1 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 1.3 ± 0.1* 1.47 ± 0.16* 1.51 ± 0.15* 1.44 ± 0.11* 1.2 ± 0.19
NFKBIA nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha 1.06 ± 0.07 1.33 ± 0.03* 1.27 ± 0.05* 1.39 ± 0.22* 1.64 ± 0.5
IRS2 insulin receptor substrate 2 1.54 ± 0.24* 1.49 ± 0.25* 1.45 ± 0.26* 1.48 ± 0.2* 1.58 ± 0.32*
G6PC2 glucose-6-phosphatase, Catalytic, 2 1.27 ± 0.06* 1.32 ± 0.14* 1.22 ± 0.2 1.12 ± 0.13 1.27 ± 0.12
TNF signalling CXCL1 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha) 0.87 ± 0.11 1.39 ± 0.15* 1.58 ± 0.19* 1.77 ± 0.45* 1.43 ± 0.29
PTGS2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) 3.19 ± 1.24* 2.1 ± 0.36* 2.78 ± 0.8* 2.72 ± 0.26* 4.52 ± 1.7
LIF leukemia inhibitory factor 1.05 ± 0.08 1.21 ± 0.12 1.3 ± 0.1* 1.4 ± 0.24* 1 ± 0.04
CXCL2 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 0.97 ± 0.11 1.3 ± 0.16 1.34 ± 0.18* 1.5 ± 0.34 1.48 ± 0.51
BIRC3 baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 0.93 ± 0.1 1.18 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.19* 1.11 ± 0.33 0.82 ± 0.3
ICAM1 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 1. 03 ± 0.04 1.24 ± 0.16 1.43 ± 0.11* 1.64 ± 0.32* 1.7 ± 0.7
CX3CL1 chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 1.13 ± 0.12 1.23 ± 0.18 1.38 ± 0.23* 1.59 ± 0.68 1.33 ± 0.67
CCL20 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 0.76 ± 0.3 1.57 ± 0.63 2.5 ± 0.9* 1.61 ± 0.32* 1.28 ± 0.4
Metabolism of xenobiotics by P450 CYP2C9 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9 0.87 ± 0.05 0.86 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.06 0.73 ± 0.11* 0.62 ± 0.12*
CYP1A1 cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 1.23 ± 0.43 1 ± 0.34 0.7 ± 0.13* 0.6 ± 0.24* 0.35 ± 0.09*
CYP1B1 cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 1.14 ± 0.22 1.13 ± 0.23 0.87 ± 0.16 0.89 ± 0.22 0.64 ± 0.17*
UGT2B7 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B7 0.91 ± 0.15 0.86 ± 0.11 0.79 ± 0.06 0.77 ± 0.1* 0.64 ± 0.06*
UGT2A3 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide A3 0.95 ± 0.2 0.96 ± 0.22 0.71 ± 0.18* 0.59 ± 0.13* 0.29 ± 0.06*
GSTA1 glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 1.1 ± 0.2 1.11 ± 0.23 0.98 ± 0.2 0.73 ± 0.16* 0.45 ± 0.08*
GSTA2 glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 1.1 ± 0.24 1.16 ± 0.31 0.97 ± 0.23 0.68 ± 0.2* 0.36 ± 0.06*
UGT2B15 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B15 0.89 ± 0.22 0.89 ± 0.27 0.53 ± 0.12* 0.37 ± 0.13* 0.16 ± 0.03*
UGT2B17 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B17 0.87 ± 0.23 0.88 ± 0.25 0.58 ± 0.11* 0.43 ± 0.15* 0.23 ± 0.06*
UGT2B10 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B10 0.97 ± 0.07 0.98 ± 0.11 0.96 ± 0.1 0.94 ± 0.09 0.77 ± 0.09*
ADH1B alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide 0.86 ± 0.1 0.82 ± 0.1 0.74 ± 0.11* 0.69 ± 0.13* 0.6 ± 0.11*
ADH1A alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (class I), alpha polypeptide 0.86 ± 0.07 0.87 ± 0.1 0.73 ± 0.15* 0.67 ± 0.16* 0.58 ± 0.17*
ADH1C alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide 0.76 ± 0.13* 0.65 ± 0.17* 0.5 ± 0.18* 0.39 ± 0.14* 0.17 ± 0.08*
CYP3A4 cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4 0.83 ± 0.11 1 ± 0.02 0.72 ± 0.16* 0.57 ± 0.17* 0.55 ± 0.23*
CYP3A5 cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5 0.94 ± 0.14 0.97 ± 0.14 0.82 ± 0.1 0.68 ± 0.15* 0.36 ± 0.07*
AKR1C1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 1.05 ± 0.11 1.32 ± 0.13* 1.3 ± 0.22 0.95 ± 0.07 0.62 ± 0.08*
AKR1C2 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C2 1.1 ± 0.12 1.36 ± 0.16* 1.34 ± 0.23 0.95 ± 0.08 0.62 ± 0.1*
ALDH1A3 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3 0.96 ± 0.08 1.03 ± 0.11 0.92 ± 0.08 0.9 ± 0.05 0.64 ± 0.17*
Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis ALDH3A2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A2 1 ± 0.14 1.1 ± 0.19 0.96 ± 0.16 0.84 ± 0.12 0.71 ± 0.11*
G6PC glucose-6-phosphatase. Catalytic subunit 1.29 ± 0.33 0.9 ± 0.3 0.74 ± 0.17* 0.66 ± 0.16* 0.46 ± 0.12*
ADH1B alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide 0.86 ± 0.1 0.82 ± 0.1 0.74 ± 0.11* 0.69 ± 0.13* 0.6 ± 0.11*
ADH1C alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide 0.76 ± 0.13* 0.65 ± 0.17* 0.5 ± 0.18* 0.39 ± 0.14* 0.17 ± 0.08*
FBP1 fructose-1.6-bisphosphatase 1 0.97 ± 0.07 0.97 ± 0.1 0.94 ± 0.04 0.9 ± 0.06 0.74 ± 0.07*
ADH1A alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (class I), alpha polypeptide 0.86 ± 0.07 0.87 ± 0.1 0.73 ± 0.15* 0.67 ± 0.16* 0.58 ± 0.17*
ALDOB aldolase B, fructose-bisphosphate 0.86 ± 0.19 0.79 ± 0.2 0.67 ± 0.14* 0.37 ± 0.18* 0.14 ± 0.06
ALDH1A3 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3 0.96 ± 0.08 1.03 ± 0.11 0.92 ± 0.08 0.9 ± 0.05 0.64 ± 0.17*
Fatty acid degradation ALDH3A2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A2 1 ± 0.14 1.1 ± 0.19 0.96 ± 0.16 0.84 ± 0.12 0.71 ± 0.11*
ACSL1 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 1.3 ± 0.1* 1.47 ± 0.16* 1.51 ± 0.15* 1.44 ± 0.11* 1.2 ± 0.19
ACSL5 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5 1.04 ± 0.08 1.16 ± 0.06 1.19 ± 0.22 0.97 ± 0.15 0.76 ± 0.13*
ADH1C alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide 0.76 ± 0.13* 0.65 ± 0.17* 0.5 ± 0.18* 0.39 ± 0.14* 0.17 ± 0.08*
ADH1B alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide 0.86 ± 0.1 0.82 ± 0.1 0.74 ± 0.11* 0.69 ± 0.13* 0.6 ± 0.11*
ADH1A alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (class I), alpha polypeptide 0.86 ± 0.07 0.87 ± 0.1 0.73 ± 0.15* 0.67 ± 0.16* 0.58 ± 0.17*
  1. *Indicates DEGs. Bold indicates the exposure time when the pathway was enriched