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Table 2 Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes identified in B. oleracea by comparative genomic analysis with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome

From: Identification and differential expression analysis of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in leaf color variants of ornamental kale

  B. oleracea
A. thaliana Synteny orthologs Non-synteny orthologs
  LF MF1 MF2  
Structural genes
Biosynthetic genes in phenylpropanoid pathway
AtPAL1 (AT2G37040) BoPAL1.1 (Bol025522) BoPAL1.2 (Bol037689)   
AtPAL2 (AT3G53260) BoPAL2.1 (Bol025102) BoPAL2.2 (Bol041738) BoPAL2.3 (Bol005411) BoPAL2.4 (Bol005084)
AtPAL3 (AT5G04230) BoPAL3.1 (Bol005493) BoPAL3.2 (Bol006745)
AtPAL4 (AT3G10340) BoPAL4 (Bol011375)
AtC4H (AT2G30490) BoC4H1 (Bol033347) BoC4H3 (Bol004608) BoC4H5 (Bol006704)
BoC4H2 (Bol033349) BoC4H4 (Bol004610)
At4CL1 (AT1G51680) Bo4CL1 (Bol031583)
At4CL2 (AT3G21240) Bo4CL2.1 (Bol038385)
Bo4CL2.2 (Bol038386)
At4CL3 (AT1G65060) Bo4CL3 (Bol012584)
At4CL5 (AT3G21230) Bo4CL5.1 (Bol000926)
Bo4CL5.2 (Bol038387)
Bo4CL5.3 (Bol038389)
Bo4CL5.4 (Bol026622)
Bo4CL5.5 (Bol026623)
Early biosynthetic genes
AtCHS (AT5G13930) BoCHS1 (Bol043396) BoCHS2 (Bol034259) BoCHS3 (Bol004244)  
AtCHI (AT3G55120) BoCHI1 (Bol044343) BoCHI2 (Bol044344) BoCHI3 (Bol008652) BoCHI4 (Bol018696)
AtF3H (AT3G51240) BoF3H1 (Bol010585) BoF3H2 (Bol030864) BoF3H3 (Bol002277) BoF3H4 (Bol044664)
BoF3H5 (Bol041656)
AtF3’H (AT5G07990) BoF3’H (Bol043829)    
AtFLS1 (AT5G08640) BoFLS1.1 (Bol043773)    BoFLS1.2 (Bol004505)
BoFLS1.3 (Bol019362)
AtFSL2 (AT5G63580)
AtFLS3 (AT5G63590)
   BoFLS2 (Bol019125)  
AtFLS4 (AT5G63595)
AtFLS5 (AT5G63600)
AtFLS6 (AT5G43935)
Late biosynthetic genes
AtDFR (AT5G42800)    BoDFR1 (Bol035269) BoDFR2 (Bol006005)
AtANS (AT4G22880) BoANS1 (Bol014986) BoANS2 (Bol042059)   
AtUGT79B1 (AT5G54060) BoUGT79B1.1 (Bol038805)    BoUGT79B1.2 (Bol014515)
BoUGT79B1.3 (Bol014517)
BoUGT79B1.4 (Bol014519)
BoUGT79B1.5 (Bol018228)
AtUGT75C1 (AT4G14090)    BoUGT75C1 (Bol027055)  
AtUGT78D2 (AT5G17050)    BoUGT78D2 (Bol021317)  
Regulatory genes (Transcription factor)
Positive regulators
R2R3-MYB
Independent regulatory genes
AtMYB11 (AT3G62610)
AtMYB12 (AT2G47460) BoMYB12.1 (Bol001533) BoMYB12.2 (Bol002581) BoMYB12.3 (Bol029626)  
AtMYB111 (AT5G49330) BoMYB111.1 (Bol016599) BoMYB111.2 (Bol033054) BoMYB111.3 (Bol032351)  
Regulation by forming MBW complex
AtPAP1 (AT1G56650)
AtPAP2 (AT1G66390) Bol042409
Bol012531
AtMYB113 (AT1G66370) Bol012528 Bol045347  
AtMYB114 (AT1G66380)     
bHLH
AtTT8 (AT4G09820) BoTT8 (Bol004077)    
AtGL3 (AT5G41315) BoGL3 (Bol014556)    
AtEGL3 (AT1G63650)   BoEGL3.1 (Bol022614) BoEGL3.2 (Bol029662) BoEGL3.3 (Bol004759)
WD40     
AtTTG1 (AT5G24520) BoTTG1 (Bol022420)    
Negative regulators     
Single-Repeat R3 MYB     
AtMYBL2 (AT1G71030) BoMYBL2.1 (Bol016164) BoMYBL2.2 (Bol034966)   
AtCPC (AT2G46410) BoCPC1 (Bol000928) BoCPC2 (Bol021780) BoCPC3 (Bol029590)  
LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD)     
AtLBD37 (AT5G67420) BoLBD37.1 (Bol014304) BoLBD37.2 (Bol008082) BoLBD37.3 (Bol005707)  
AtLBD38 (AT3G49940) BoLBD38.1 (Bol007980) BoLBD38.2 (Bol021982) BoLBD38.3 (Bol016975)  
AtLBD39 (AT4G37540)     BoLBD39 (Bol019060)
Transport genes
AtTT19 (AT5G17220) BoTT19.1 (Bol019821)   BoTT19.2 (Bol021325)