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Table 2 Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes identified in B. oleracea by comparative genomic analysis with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome

From: Identification and differential expression analysis of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in leaf color variants of ornamental kale

 

B. oleracea

A. thaliana

Synteny orthologs

Non-synteny orthologs

 

LF

MF1

MF2

 

Structural genes

Biosynthetic genes in phenylpropanoid pathway

AtPAL1 (AT2G37040)

BoPAL1.1 (Bol025522)

BoPAL1.2 (Bol037689)

  

AtPAL2 (AT3G53260)

BoPAL2.1 (Bol025102)

BoPAL2.2 (Bol041738)

BoPAL2.3 (Bol005411)

BoPAL2.4 (Bol005084)

AtPAL3 (AT5G04230)

BoPAL3.1 (Bol005493)

BoPAL3.2 (Bol006745)

AtPAL4 (AT3G10340)

BoPAL4 (Bol011375)

AtC4H (AT2G30490)

BoC4H1 (Bol033347)

BoC4H3 (Bol004608)

BoC4H5 (Bol006704)

BoC4H2 (Bol033349)

BoC4H4 (Bol004610)

At4CL1 (AT1G51680)

Bo4CL1 (Bol031583)

At4CL2 (AT3G21240)

Bo4CL2.1 (Bol038385)

Bo4CL2.2 (Bol038386)

At4CL3 (AT1G65060)

Bo4CL3 (Bol012584)

At4CL5 (AT3G21230)

Bo4CL5.1 (Bol000926)

Bo4CL5.2 (Bol038387)

Bo4CL5.3 (Bol038389)

Bo4CL5.4 (Bol026622)

Bo4CL5.5 (Bol026623)

Early biosynthetic genes

AtCHS (AT5G13930)

BoCHS1 (Bol043396)

BoCHS2 (Bol034259)

BoCHS3 (Bol004244)

 

AtCHI (AT3G55120)

BoCHI1 (Bol044343)

BoCHI2 (Bol044344)

BoCHI3 (Bol008652)

BoCHI4 (Bol018696)

AtF3H (AT3G51240)

BoF3H1 (Bol010585)

BoF3H2 (Bol030864)

BoF3H3 (Bol002277)

BoF3H4 (Bol044664)

BoF3H5 (Bol041656)

AtF3’H (AT5G07990)

BoF3’H (Bol043829)

   

AtFLS1 (AT5G08640)

BoFLS1.1 (Bol043773)

  

BoFLS1.2 (Bol004505)

BoFLS1.3 (Bol019362)

AtFSL2 (AT5G63580)

AtFLS3 (AT5G63590)

  

BoFLS2 (Bol019125)

 

AtFLS4 (AT5G63595)

AtFLS5 (AT5G63600)

AtFLS6 (AT5G43935)

Late biosynthetic genes

AtDFR (AT5G42800)

  

BoDFR1 (Bol035269)

BoDFR2 (Bol006005)

AtANS (AT4G22880)

BoANS1 (Bol014986)

BoANS2 (Bol042059)

  

AtUGT79B1 (AT5G54060)

BoUGT79B1.1 (Bol038805)

  

BoUGT79B1.2 (Bol014515)

BoUGT79B1.3 (Bol014517)

BoUGT79B1.4 (Bol014519)

BoUGT79B1.5 (Bol018228)

AtUGT75C1 (AT4G14090)

  

BoUGT75C1 (Bol027055)

 

AtUGT78D2 (AT5G17050)

  

BoUGT78D2 (Bol021317)

 

Regulatory genes (Transcription factor)

Positive regulators

R2R3-MYB

Independent regulatory genes

AtMYB11 (AT3G62610)

AtMYB12 (AT2G47460)

BoMYB12.1 (Bol001533)

BoMYB12.2 (Bol002581)

BoMYB12.3 (Bol029626)

 

AtMYB111 (AT5G49330)

BoMYB111.1 (Bol016599)

BoMYB111.2 (Bol033054)

BoMYB111.3 (Bol032351)

 

Regulation by forming MBW complex

AtPAP1 (AT1G56650)

AtPAP2 (AT1G66390)

Bol042409

Bol012531

AtMYB113 (AT1G66370)

Bol012528

Bol045347

 

AtMYB114 (AT1G66380)

    

bHLH

AtTT8 (AT4G09820)

BoTT8 (Bol004077)

   

AtGL3 (AT5G41315)

BoGL3 (Bol014556)

   

AtEGL3 (AT1G63650)

 

BoEGL3.1 (Bol022614)

BoEGL3.2 (Bol029662)

BoEGL3.3 (Bol004759)

WD40

    

AtTTG1 (AT5G24520)

BoTTG1 (Bol022420)

   

Negative regulators

    

Single-Repeat R3 MYB

    

AtMYBL2 (AT1G71030)

BoMYBL2.1 (Bol016164)

BoMYBL2.2 (Bol034966)

  

AtCPC (AT2G46410)

BoCPC1 (Bol000928)

BoCPC2 (Bol021780)

BoCPC3 (Bol029590)

 

LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD)

    

AtLBD37 (AT5G67420)

BoLBD37.1 (Bol014304)

BoLBD37.2 (Bol008082)

BoLBD37.3 (Bol005707)

 

AtLBD38 (AT3G49940)

BoLBD38.1 (Bol007980)

BoLBD38.2 (Bol021982)

BoLBD38.3 (Bol016975)

 

AtLBD39 (AT4G37540)

   

BoLBD39 (Bol019060)

Transport genes

AtTT19 (AT5G17220)

BoTT19.1 (Bol019821)

 

BoTT19.2 (Bol021325)