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Table 3 Stress related genes within the ten investigated eukaryotes. Numbers reflect the number of putative genes retrieved within each gene category (See Additional file 1 for details)

From: Comparative transcriptomics suggest unique molecular adaptations within tardigrade lineages

Gene class/category Tardigrada Arthropoda Nematoda Chordata Ascomycota
Es Rc Rv He Dm Ce Hs Xt Dr Sc
Tardigrade unique proteinsa 0 23 32 25 0 0 0 0 0 0
Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) b 5 6 9 7 0 2 0 0 0 0
Heat shock proteinsc 56 65 59 117 79 65 90 77 96 45
RNA/DNA Chaperones_Cold Shock Domain containingd 3 1 1 1 1 6 5 5 3 0
DNA repair (58) (91) (74) (80) (61) (57) (77) (73) (74) (57)
TP53 e 0 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 0
 Base excision repairf 18 31 24 27 15 13 22 21 19 14
 Mismatch repairg 15 20 13 16 10 12 14 14 14 14
 Nucleotide excision repairh 18 23 18 21 15 16 18 17 19 15
 Non-homologous end-joiningi 0 5 6 6 8 3 5 5 5 5
 Homologous recombinationj 7 11 12 9 12 12 15 13 14 9
Antioxidative stress (70) (79) (79) (89) (82) (89) (66) (53) (68) (29)
Superoxide dismutases (SOD_CuZn; SOD_Mn) 8 14 17 15 6 6 4 2 5 3
Catalase (CAT) 0 4 4 4 2 3 1 2 1 2
Peroxiredoxins (PRDX) 5 7 9 12 9 3 6 6 6 3
Thioredoxins (TXN; TXNRD; TXNL; TMX) 12 13 10 12 14 11 14 12 14 8
Glutaredoxin (GLRX) 5 4 3 3 4 6 4 4 4 5
Glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 2 1 1 1 2 8 8 6 9 3
Glutathione synthetase (GSS) 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1
Soluble glutathione S-transferases (GST soluble) 35 30 31 34 38 49 22 13 20 2
Microsomal glutathione S-transferases (microsomal GST) 0 2 0 2 3 0 4 5 6 0
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
Peroxisomal biogenesis factorsk 4 3 5 2 17 13 21 21 23 12
Trehalose metabolism (3) (9) (10) (9) (5) (8) (2) (2) (2) (7)
Trehalose-phosphate synthase/phosphatase (TPS-TPP) 0 1 1 0 2 3 0 0 0 4
Trehalases (PGGHG/ATHL1, TREH) 3 8 9 9 3 5 2 2 2 3
  1. Es: Echiniscoides cf. sigismundi, Rc: Richtersius cf. coronifer, Rv: Ramazzottius cf. varieornatus, He: Hypsibius exemplaris, Dm: Drosophila melanogaster, Ce: Caenorhabditis elegans, Hs: Homo sapiens, Xt: Xenopus tropicalis, Dr: Danio rerio, Sc: Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  2. a= CAHS; SAHS; MAHS; RvLEAM; Dsup
  3. b= LEA; DUR-1
  4. c= HSP90; HSP70; HSP60; HSP40; HSP20; HSP10
  5. d= CSP; lin28; Y-box
  6. e= Tp53; p63/p73
  7. f= UNG; XRCC1; XRCC3; XRCC2; PNKP; Tdp1; APTX; POLB; POLD; POLE; FEN1; PCNA; PARP1–4
  8. g= MSH2; MSH6; MSH3; MSH4; MSH5; MLH1; PMS2; MLH3; Exo1; RFC
  9. h= XPC; CETN2; Rad23; DDB; GTF2H1/TFIIH1; GTF2H2/TFIIH2; GTF2H3/TFIIH3; GTF2H4/TFIIH4; CDK7; ERCC3; ERCC2; ERCC1; XPA; ERCC5
  10. i= XRCC6; XRCC5; CLP/XRCC4; LIG4; NHEJ1
  11. j= MRE11; Rad50; NBS1; Rad51; CtIP; BRCA1; BRCA2; Slx1; SLX4; Mus81; EME1
  12. k= PEX1; PEX2; PEX3; PEX5; PEX6; PEX7; PEX10; PEX11; PEX12; PEX13; PEX14; PEX16; PEX19; PEX26; PXMP2; PMP34; PXMP4; TYSND1