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Table 1 Concentrations and hazard quotients (HQ) for components of the pesticide cocktail

From: Candidate stress biomarkers for queen failure diagnostics

Pesticide Mode of action Group Median detection (ppb)a Target ppb Contributing HQ
Coumaphos Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor Acaricide 943 314 53.00
tau-Fluvalinate Sodium channel modulator Acaricide 4310 1437 332.56
2,4-DMPFb Octopamine receptor agonist Acaricide (metabolite) 304 101 1.35
Chlorothalonil Multisite activity Fungicide 361 120 1.08
Chlorpyrifos Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor Insecticide 2.7 1 11.81
Fenpropathrin Sodium channel modulator Insecticide 16.8 6 112
Pendimethalin Inhibition of microtubule assembly Herbicide 5.3 2 0.02
Atrazine Inhibition of photosynthesis Herbicide 5.4 2 .01
Azoxystrobin Cytochrome bc1 inhibitor Fungicide 5.1 2 .01
   Total HQ 511
  1. aMedian wax concentrations and LD50s as determined by Traynor et al. (2016) [18]
  2. b2,4-Dimethylphenyl formamide (Amitraz degradate)