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Table 1 Biological characteristics of representative Ehrlichia species

From: Comparative Analysis of Genome of Ehrlichia sp. HF, a Model Bacterium to Study Fatal Human Ehrlichiosis

Species1 (Type strain) Diseases Mammalian Host Tick Vector/Host Geographic Distribution References
Ehrlichia. sp. HF (HF565) Acute fatal infection of mice (experimental) Unknown Ixodes ovatus , I. ricinus, and I. apronophorus ticks Japan, France, Serbia, Romania [5,6,7,8,9,10]
E. chaffeensis (Arkansas)2 Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) Deer, Human, Dog, Coyote, Fox3 Amblyomma americanum (Lone star tick) USA, Africa, South America, Europe, Japan [11,12,13,14,15,16]
E. muris subsp. muris (AS145) Murine monocytic ehrlichiosis (chronic systemic infection of mice) Mouse, Vole Ticks (Haemaphysalis flava or Ixodes persulcatus) Japan, Russia4 [17, 18]
E. muris subsp. eauclairensis (Wisconsin) Human or murine monocytic ehrlichiosis (fatal infection of mice) Human, Mouse Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA [19, 20]
E. canis (Oklahoma) Canine tropical pancytopenia, Venezuelan Human Ehrlichiosis 5 Dog, Human Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) Global [21,22,23,24,25]
E. ruminantium (Welgevonden) Heartwater Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Antelope) Various Amblyomma species of ticks Africa, Caribbean6 [26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33]
E. ewingii (Stillwater) Canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Human ewingii ehrlichiosis Deer, Dog, Human Amblyomma americanum USA, Japan [34,35,36]
E. minasensis (UFMG-EV) Ehrlichiosis Cattle, Deer, Dog 7 Rhipicephalus microplus tick Brazil, Global [37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45]
  1. 1Based on International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, and published in International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, which lists officially approved list of bacterial classification and nomenclature, the genus Ehrlichia currently consists of six validly published species with correct names (
  2. 2Ehrlichia sp. HF, or Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE) agent, is a field tick isolate of Ehrlichia species in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan from 1993 to 1994. Ehrlichia sp. HF DNA was also detected in I. ricinus tick from Brittany, France and Serbia, and I. apronophorus tick in Romania
  3. 3E. chaffeensis DNA was detected in 71% of free-ranging coyotes in Oklahoma and experimentally infected red foxes
  4. 4E muris DNA was found in I. persulcatus ticks and small mammals in Russia
  5. 5Human Infection with E. canis with clinical signs was reported in Venezuela, and E. canis was culture isolated from a VHE patient. In addition, E. canis DNA was detected in human blood bank donors in Costa Rica
  6. 6Heartwater in Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe was caused E. ruminantium Gardel, which is transmitted by Amblyomma variegatum (Tropical bont tick) and exceptionally virulent in Dutch goats. More heartwater cases in wild and domestic ruminants have been reported in five Caribbean islands, posing an increasing threat to domestic and wild ruminants in the continental US
  7. 7E. minasensis strain UFMG-EVT was isolated from the haemolymph of engorged Rhipicephalus microplus female ticks in Brazil, whereas strain Cuiaba was isolated from the whole blood of a naturally infected cattle. E. minasensis DNAs have also been reported in ticks, cervids, and dogs from France, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Israel