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Table 3 H. halys salivary effectors with homologs previously implicated in mediating herbivorous hemipterans’ interaction with plant hosts

From: Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), genome: putative underpinnings of polyphagy, insecticide resistance potential and biology of a top worldwide pest

Salivary effectorGene symbolProtein ReferencePea aphid homologBLAST E-valueComment
Armet/mesencephalic astrocyte -derived neurotrophic factorLOC106681713XP_014277663.1ACYPI0080011.6e-45Found in pea aphid saliva and aphid-fed plants. RNAi targeting Armet expression disrupted aphid feeding behavior leading to reduced life span [91].
Mp10/ejaculatory bulb-specific proteinLOC106681352XP_014277113.1ACYPI0000971.6e-26Mp10 from green peach aphid induced chlorosis, localized cell death in planta, and triggered plant defenses [92, 93].
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Ace2LOC106681465XP_014277274.1ACYPI0072040Ace, a M2 metalloprotease, potentially degrade short signaling peptides capable of inducing plant defense. RNAi simultaneously targeting Ace1 and Ace2 expression in pea aphid caused significant mortality [90, 94].
Mucin-likeLOC106684151XP_014281554.1ACYPI0010191.6e-41Found in both gelling and watery saliva of rice brown planthopper. RNAi targeting its expression disrupted the salivary sheath formation leading to disordered developmental duration and poor performance [95, 96].
CalreticulinLOC106681650XP_014277576.1ACYPI0026220Calcium binding proteins found in saliva of southern green stink bug and various aphid species, putatively involved in suppressing the activation of defense cascades [82, 90, 97].
SarcalumeninLOC106681164XP_014276825.1ACYPI0014460
EndoplasminLOC106681661XP_014277591.1ACYPI0099150
Digestive cysteine proteinase 1LOC106685481XP_014283673.1ACYPI0039545.4e-170Cysteine proteinase-like cathepsins have been found in saliva of southern green stink bug [82], these enzymes potentially degrade plant defense peptides and/or perform extra-oral digestion of dietary proteins.
Cathepsin BLOC106690036XP_014290885.1ACYPI0000033.2e-139
Cysteine proteinaseLOC106682432XP_014278766.1ACYPI0003761.7e-123
Cathepsin L1LOC106682597XP_014279027.1ACYPI0069743e-114
Disulfide isomeraseLOC106677432XP_014270846.1ACYPI0055940Found in saliva of southern green stink bug and various aphid species, potentially aid in gelling nature of sheath saliva by catalyzing the formation of disulfide bridges in proteins [90, 98].
LOC106678635XP_014272751.1ACYPI0097550
LOC106686982XP_014286089.1ACYPI0089261e-172
Superoxide dismutaseLOC106681155XP_014276814.1ACYPI0039212.56e-58Antioxidant enzymes have been found in saliva of southern green stink bug and various aphid species [82, 90, 99,100,101,102], and supposedly degrade reactive oxygen species, plant’s initial defense response.
Peroxidase-like isoform X1LOC106692485XP_014293941.1ACYPI0008171.2e-108
Peroxiredoxin-2LOC106681766XP_014277748.1ACYPI0039609.2e-138
Selenoprotein-likeLOC106691878XP_014293266.1ACYPI0032783.7e-69
Neutral alpha-glucosidaseLOC106679031XP_014273428.1ACYPI0094570Found in saliva of plant tarnished bug, glassy-winged sharpshooter, and potato aphid, potentially break down complex carbohydrates such as cellulose in plant cell wall [103,104,105].
TrehalaseLOC106681721XP_014277675.1ACYPI0022980Found in saliva of various aphid species; putatively suppresses the activation of plant defenses by disrupting signal transduction [90, 97, 98, 106].
Aminopeptidase NLOC106686134XP_014284771.1ACYPI0022580Found in saliva of southern green stink bug, tarnished plant bug, and pea aphid; potentially destroy plant defense and signaling peptides [82, 90, 105].
Carboxypeptidase ELOC106686022XP_014284587.1ACYPI0012380Found in saliva of various hemipteran species [90, 107], potentially degrade plant defense peptides and/or perform extra-oral digestion of dietary proteins.
Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipaseLOC106692440XP_014293875.1ACYPI0093693.0e-60Lipases have been found in saliva of various hemipteran species [99, 103, 107,108,109], potentially interfere plant defense by binding to lipids and/or perform extra-oral digestion of dietary proteins
Pancreatic lipase-related proteinLOC106679755XP_014274569.1ACYPI0038520
ApolipophorinsLOC106679717XP_014274514.1ACYPI0041981.1e-76Found in saliva of various aphid species [90, 99, 108], potentially interfere plant defense signaling.
GlycosyltransferaseLOC106688290XP_014288163.1ACYPI0027290Several glycosyltransferases have been found in saliva of southern green stink bug [82].
Protein yellowLOC106690949XP_014292045.1ACYPI0004791e-168Found in two cereal aphid species, it potentially targets the phenoloxidase-based defense in plants [106].
 LOC106680598XP_014275905.1ACYPI0018579e-112Several glycosyltransferases have been found in saliva of southern green stink bug [82].