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Fig. 2 | BMC Genomics

Fig. 2

From: Genomic evolution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae since the preantibiotic era (1928–2013): antimicrobial use/misuse selects for resistance and drives evolution

Fig. 2

Core single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 232 Neisseria gonorrhoeae genomes was initially determined using Gubbins to exclude the recombinant regions and a maximum likelihood tree was constructed using 28,196 SNPs. The columns next to the tree describe the antimicrobial resistance determinants in each isolate. The reference WHO O genome [19] is not annotated and is shown in black. More than 100 different N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and N. gonorrhoeae sequence typing antimicrobial resistance (NG-STAR) sequence types were found. The pie charts below the tree reflect the proportion of each antimicrobial resistance determinant per era

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