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Table 1 Antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants for Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Denmark, 1928–2013

From: Genomic evolution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae since the preantibiotic era (1928–2013): antimicrobial use/misuse selects for resistance and drives evolution

AntibioticPreantibiotic era
(% S/I/R)
Golden era
(% S/I/R)
Postmodern era
(% S/I/R)
1920s (n = 3)1930s (n = 11)1940s (n = 41)1950s (n = 37)1960s (n = 27)1970s (n = 10)1980s (n = 15)1990s (n = 14)21st century
(n = 33)
Penicillin G100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−91.9/8.1/−55.6/40.7/3.780.0/10.0/10.040.0/53.3/6.714.3/50.0/35.76.1/48.5/45.4
TMP-SMX100.0/−/−100.0/−/−53.7/43.9/2.459.5/37.8/2.740.8/48.1/11.150.0/40.0/10.053.3/26.7/20.014.3/35.7/50.012.1/18.2/69.7
Chloramphenicol100.0/−/−90.9/−/9.1100.0/−/−100.0/−/−77.8/18.5/3.780.0/10.0/10.073.3/6.7/20.035.7/21.4/42.924.2/48.5/27.3
Tetracycline100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−81.5/14.8/3.780.0/10.0/10.066.7/13.3/20.014.3/21.4/64.315.2/24.2/60.6
Ciprofloxacin100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−85.7/−/14.330.3/−/69.7
Erythromycin100.0/NA/−90.9/NA/9.1100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−92.6/NA/7.480.0/NA/20.073.3/NA/26.742.9/NA/57.142.4/NA/57.6
Azithromycin100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−90.9/NA/9.1
Cefuroxime100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−78.6/14.3/7.181.8/3.0/15.2
Cefotaxime100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−92.9/NA/7.184.8/NA/15.2
Cefixime100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−97.0/NA/3.0
Ceftriaxone100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−
Spectinomycin100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−100.0/NA/−
Gentamicin100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−
Kanamycin100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−93.3/6.7/−92.9/7.1/−100.0/−/−
Lower/medium/upper range (%)
 Sulfamethoxazole100.0/−/−100.0/−/−63.4/26.8/9.883.8/8.1/8.174.1/18.5/7.480.0/10.0/10.066.7/13.3/20.014.3/21.4/64.312.1/30.3/57.6
 Ampicillin100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−93.3/−/6.792.9/−/7.166.7/27.3/6.0
 Rifampin100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−78.6/−/21.451.5/−/48.5
 Ertapenem100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−100.0/−/−
Absence/presence of resistance mutations (affected drug or effect) (%)
penA D345a (penicillin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−91.9/8.151.9/48.180.0/20.033.3/66.614.3/85.718.2/81.8
penA mosaic (penicillin, ESCs)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−84.8/15.2
penB (decreased influx)66.6/33.3100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−96.3/3.790.0/10.080.0/20.057.1/42.942.4/57.6
mtrR (increased efflux)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−59.3/40.780.0/20.073.3/26.735.7/64.360.6/39.4
gyrA (ciprofloxacin)100.0/−100.0/−95.1/4.997.3/2.7100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−85.7/14.333.3/66.7
parC (ciprofloxacin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−92.9/7.139.4/60.6
ponA (penicillin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−96.3/3.780.0/20.086.7/13.357.1/42.939.4/60.6
folP (sulfonamides)100.0/−100.0/−97.6/2.4100.0/−96.3/3.780.0/20.080.0/20.021.4/78.612.1/87.9
rpsJ (tetracycline)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−81.5/18.580.0/20.066.7/33.37.1/92.915.2/84.8
tetM plasmid (tetracycline)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−71.4/28.669.7/30.3
blaTEM (penicillin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−93.3/6.792.9/7.169.7/30.3
rpsE (spectinomycin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−
 16S rDNA (spectinomycin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−
 23S rDNA (azithromycin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−
rpoB (rifampin)100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−100.0/−78.6/21.451.5/48.5
  1. TMP-SMX Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole; ESCs Extended-spectrum cephalosporins; NA Not applicable