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Table 2 The summary of safety risks in all isolates

From: Whole-genome analysis of probiotic product isolates reveals the presence of genes related to antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and toxic metabolites, posing potential health risks

Isolates Toxic Metabolites Virulence factors Antibiotic resistance Number of active prophages Number of transposons Number of plasmids
L. rhamnosus TK-F8B none none none 0 0 2
B. animalis subsp. lactis TK-J6A none none tetracycline, rifamycin 0 0 0
L. helveticus TK-J7A D-lactate none none 0 0 2
L. plantarum TK-P2A D-lactate none none 0 0 2
S. thermophilus TK-P3A none adhesion, biofilm formation, virulence none 0 0 1
E. faecalis TK-P4B biogenic amines biofilm formation, virulence multidrug resistance 1 1 3
E. faecium TK-P5D biogenic amines adhesion, biofilm formation, virulence multidrug resistance 3 0 1
L. delbrueckii P3MRA D-lactate, nitrocompounds none none 0 0 0
L. reuteri TK-F8A D-lactate none none 5 0 0
L. paracasei TK-P4A none none none 4 0 3
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