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Table 4 Activities involved in a traditional breeding strategy compared with a simple example of how genomic selection (GS) could be employed in a breeding program. The number of years involved in each activity for the two strategies is shown. Information for traditional breeding is adapted from Topp, Hardner [13]. RVT, regional variety trial; SPT, seedling progeny trial

From: Genomic selection and genetic gain for nut yield in an Australian macadamia breeding population

Year Traditional breeding Genomic selection
1 Cross parents, grow seedlings Cross parents, grow seedlings
2 Age 1: Plant SPT Genotype, select seedlings using GS
3 Age 2: Trial maintenance Propagate RVT
4 Age 3: Trial maintenance Age 1: Plant RVT
5 Age 4: Field evaluations Age 2: Trial maintenance
6 Age 5: Field evaluations Age 3: Trial maintenance
7 Age 6: Field evaluations Age 4: Field evaluations
8 Age 7: Field evaluations Age 5: Field evaluations
9 Age 8: Field evaluations, select seedlings Age 6: Field evaluations
10 Propagate RVT Age 7: Field evaluations
11 Age 1: Plant RVT Age 8: Field evaluations
12 Age 2: Trial maintenance Age 9: Field evaluations
13 Age 3: Trial maintenance Age 10: Field evaluations
14 Age 4: Field evaluations Release
15 Age 5: Field evaluations  
16 Age 6: Field evaluations  
17 Age 7: Field evaluations  
18 Age 8: Field evaluations  
19 Age 9: Field evaluations  
20 Age 10: Field evaluations  
21 Release