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Table 5 Genetic gain of yield (∆G, in g/year) for traditional breeding and genomic selection methods as outlined in Table 4. Genetic gain was calculated using Eq. 6, where i was a function of the percentage of the population selected (s%) as given by Falconer and Mackay [46], r is the square-root of yield heritability for traditional breeding or the prediction accuracy of genomic selection model, σ is the standard deviation of PBLUPs (in g), and L is the generation length (in years)

From: Genomic selection and genetic gain for nut yield in an Australian macadamia breeding population

Method s% i r σ (g) L (years) ∆G (g/year)
Traditional breeding 1 2.665 0.55 1237 8 226
2.5 2.338 0.55 1237 8 197
Genomic selection
Randomly-grouped (related population) 1 2.665 0.57 1237 4 474
2.5 2.338 0.57 1237 4 416
Family-grouped (unrelated population) 1 2.665 0.14 1237 4 119
2.5 2.338 0.14 1237 4 105