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Table 6 Clinical characteristics of VTRNA2-1 hypomethylation and elevated methylation groups (n = 82)

From: Elevated methylation of the vault RNA2-1 promoter in maternal blood is associated with preterm birth

  Hypomethylation† Elevated methylation‡
Term (n = 17) Preterm (n = 11) p-value Term (n = 22) Preterm (n = 32) p-value
Maternal age 31.7 ± 2.7 28.2 ± 2.5 0.002 31.7 ± 3.1 31.9 ± 4.7 0.812
BMI 26.3 ± 3.3 24.5 ± 5.4 0.320 25.8 ± 3.3 23.5 ± 3.4 0.024
Gravidity*    0.954    0.412
 0 6 (35.3) 4 (36.4)   10 (45.5) 11 (34.4)  
 1 11 (64.7) 7 (63.6)   12 (54.5) 21 (65.6)  
Parity*    0.761    0.026
 Nulliparous 9 (52.9) 5 (45.5)   13 (59.1) 17 (53.1)  
 Multiparous 8 (47.1) 6 (54.5)   9 (40.9) 15 (46.9)  
Delivery season*    0.775    0.009
 Spring, n (%) 4 (23.5) 4 (36.4)   1 (4.5) 8 (25.0)  
 Summer, n (%) 1 ( 5.9) 0 (0.0)   2 (9.1) 11 (34.4)  
 Autumn, n (%) 9 (52.9) 5 (45.5)   10 (45.5) 8 (25.0)  
 Winter, n (%) 3 (17.6) 2 (18.2)   9 (40.9) 5 (15.6)  
Mode of delivery*    0.435    0.264
 Vaginal, n (%) 9 (52.9) 8 (72.7)   15 (68.2) 16 (50.0)  
 C-section, n (%) 8 (47.1) 3 (27.3)   7 (31.8) 16 (50.0)  
Education    0.417    0.226
 Below high school 3 (17.6) 3 (37.5)   5 (22.7) 10 (47.6)  
 Above college 14 (82.4) 5 (62.5)   17 (77.3) 11 (52.4)  
Gestational age 39.4 ± 1.0 29.3 ± 2.4 < 0.001 39.4 ± 1.4 29.1 ± 2.9 < 0.001
WBC (x103) 10.3 ± 3.3 11.9 ± 3.0 0.218 9.9 ± 2.9 12.3 ± 4.0 0.028
Ureaplasma*    0.005    0.002
 Negative 15 (88.2) 4 (36.4)   22 (100.0) 18 (56.3)  
 Positive 0 (0.0) 5 (45.5)   0 (0.0) 8 (25.0)  
Birth outcome
 Body weight (kg) 3.5 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.3 < 0.001 3.2 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.5 < 0.001
Sex*    0.934    0.783
 Male, n (%) 9 (52.9) 6 (54.5)   11 (40.0) 18 (56.3)  
 Female, n (%) 8 (47.1) 5 (45.5)   11 (60.0) 14 (43.8)  
Apgar 1 min 9.3 ± 0.9 6.3 ± 1.8 < 0.001 9.7 ± 0.5 5.7 ± 2.5 < 0.001
Apgar 5 min 9.9 ± 0.3 7.8 ± 1.6 < 0.001 10.0 ± 0.0 7.4 ± 2.2 < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± SD for continuous variables and as n (%) for categorical variables
  2. BMI body mass index
  3. aStudent’s t-test, p < 0.05
  4. 2 test, p < 0.05
  5. †Hypomethylation, < 13% methylation of VTRNA2-1
  6. ‡Elevated methylation, methylation level of 30–60%