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Table 3 Changes in miRNA expression values obtained via QIAseq miRNA secondary analysis pipeline (using DESeq2 for normalization), in different samples when compared against the raw whole milk as the control group. The multiple-testing adjustment was done using Benjamini-Hochberg correction

From: Non-coding RNA in raw and commercially processed milk and putative targets related to growth and immune-response

Treatment group Number of upregulated miRNAs Number of downregulated miRNAs
heat-treated skim 703 296
homogenized heat-treated skim 615 250
pasteurized homogenized skim 233 280
heavy whipping cream 432 290
sweet cream buttermilk 458 267
cultured buttermilk 1301 430