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Table 2 List of genes encoded in four Bupleurum plastomes

From: The chloroplast genomes of four Bupleurum (Apiaceae) species endemic to Southwestern China, a diversity center of the genus, as well as their evolutionary implications and phylogenetic inferences

Gene Category Genes Number
Ribosomal RNAs rrn4.5 (×2); rrn5 (×2); rrn16 (×2); rrn23 (× 2) 4
Transfer RNAs trnA-UGC (×2)a; trnC-GCA; trnD-GUC; trnE-UUC; trnF-GAA; trnfM-CAU; trnG-GCC; trnG-UCC a; trnH-GUG; trnI-CAU (× 2); trnI-GAU (× 2) a; trnK-UUU a; trnL-CAA(× 2); trnL-UAA a; trnL-UAG; trnM-CAU; trnN-GUU (× 2); trnP-UGG; trnQ-UUG; trnR-ACG (× 2); trnR-UCU; trnS-GCU; trnS-GGA; trnS-UGA; trnT-GGU; trnT-UGU; trnV-GAC (× 2); trnV-UAC a; trnW-CCA; trnY-GUA 37
Subunits of photosystem I psaA; psaB; psaC; psaI; psaJ; ycf3b; ycf4 7
Subunits of photosystem II psbA; psbB; psbC; psbD; psbE; psbF; psbH; psbI; psbJ; psbK; psbL; psbM; psbN; psbT; psbZ; 15
ATP-dependent protease subunit P clpPb 1
Large subunit of rubisco rbcL 1
NADH dehydrogenase ndhA; ndhB (×2) a; ndhC; ndhD; ndhE; ndhF; ndhG; ndhH; ndhI; ndhJ; ndhK 12
Ribosomal protein (large subunit) rpl2 (×2) a; rpl14; rpl16 a; rpl20; rpl22; rpl23 (× 2); rpl33; rpl32; rpl36 11
Small subunit of ribosomal proteins rps2; rps3; rps4; rps7 (×2); rps8; rps11; rps12 (× 2)b; rps14; rps15; rps16 a; rps18; rps19 14
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase rpoA; rpoB; rpoC1; rpoC2 4
Subunits of ATP synthase atpA; atpB; atpE; atpF a; atpH; atpI 6
C-type cytochrome synthesis gene ccsA 1
Subunits of cytochrome b/f complex petN; petA; petL; petG; petB a; petD a 6
Envelop membrane protein cemA 1
Maturase matK 1
Hypothetical chloroplast reading frames ycf1; ycf2 (×2) 5
Subunits of Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase accD 1
Pseudogenes infA; rps19c; ycf1c; ycf15 (×2) 4
Total 114 single-copy genes, 132 in total.  
  1. (×2): Two gene copies in the IRs; a Gene containing one intron; b Gene containing two introns; c means the incomplete copy located in the IR of the gene straddling the IR and LSC/SSC regions