Phylogenetic tree constructed from complete mtDNA sequences for five Malagasy individuals. M and V represents the Mikea and Vezo populations, respectively. Mutations were scored relative to the rCRS . Numbers along links refer to nucleotide positions. A plus sign (+) indicates an insertion. Recurrent mutations in the phylogeny are underlined. The prefix "@" indicates back mutations. Control region mutations are in bold, synonymous transitions are shown in red, and non-synonymous mutations are listed in italic. TMRCA estimates were calculated as in [35, 36, 56], presented in italic, bold and regular font, respectively, and are presented in units of thousands of years before present.