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Table 1 Ecology and genome organization of P. furiosus, P. abyssi, and P. horikoshii (based on [35, 8, 9, 15, 17, 27, 70, 71])

From: Molecular evolution of the hyperthermophilic archaea of the Pyrococcus genus: analysis of adaptation to different environmental conditions

  P. furiosus P. abyssi P. horikoshii
General ecological characteristics
Doubling time (min) [15, 70, 71] 37 33 32
Pressure optimum (MPa) [8] 11 21 1
Pressure range (MPa) [8] <0.1-25 <0.1-40 <0.1-35
Temperature optimum (°C) [15, 70, 71] 100 96 98
Temperature range (°C) [15, 70, 71] 70-103 67-102 <80--102
Salt concentration optimum (%) [15, 70, 71] 2 3 2,4
Salt concentration range (%)[15, 70, 71] 0.5-5 0.7-5 1-5
pH optimum [15, 70, 71] 7 6.8 7
pH range [15, 70, 71] 5-9 4-8.5 5-8
Carbohydrate and energy sources
Complex substrates (i.e., yeast extract, peptone, etc.), 20 individual amino acids [15, 70, 71] growth growth growth
Pyruvate, maltose [15, 70, 71] growth growth death
Casamino Acids [15, 17, 70, 71] weak growth growth death
β-glucosides (i.e., cellobiose and laminarin) [27] growth death death
Other requirements
S0 [15, 70, 71] practically no growth enhanced growth enhanced growth
Tryptophan [15, 70, 71] not needed not needed needed
Genome features
Chromosome size (bp) [35] 1,908,256 1,765,118 1,738,505
G + C content (mol %) [35] 40.8 44.7 41.9
Number of ORFs [5] 2,208 1,765 2,061
Clusters of long tandem repeats [5] 7 4 6
Insertion sequences [5] 24 1 1
Amino acid biosynthesis (Val, Leu, Ile, Trp), aromatic amino acids biosynthesis, maltose transport, phosphate uptake [5, 9] yes yes no
Restriction/modification enzymes (protection from bacteriophages) [5, 9] no yes no
Chemotaxis-related genes [5, 9] no yes yes
Histidine biosynthesis, riboflavin biosynthesis, trehalose transport, citrate cycle, cobalt transport [5, 9] yes no no