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Table 4 Results of the white-throated sparrow "morph" assay using the Dra I restriction site located in the VIP gene [50]. Species heterozygous for the Dra I restriction site show 3 fragments (F1-F3); species homozygous for the Dra I restriction site show 2 bands, one smaller band at approximately 72–89 bp and one larger band at 185–190 bp (F1 and F2); finally, homozygotes that do not carry the Dra I restriction site show only a single band at 284 bp (F3).

From: The value of avian genomics to the conservation of wildlife

Species Subspecies Genotype VIP F1
(bp)
VIP F2
(bp)
VIP F3
(bp)
# %
White-throated sparrow
(Zonotrichia albicollis)
  2m/2m
Homozygous – Dra I site
88 189 - 0 0
   2m/2 (White Morph)
Heterozygous
88 189 284 278 50.9
   2/2 (Tan Morph)
Homozygous – No site
- - 284 268 49.1
White-crowned sparrow
(Z. leucophyrs)
  Homozygous – Dra I site 80 190 - 2 16.7
   Heterozygous 80 190 284 4 33.3
   Homozygous – No site - - 284 6 50.0
Golden-crowned sparrow
(Z. atricapilla)
  Homozygous – Dra I site 83 190 - 0 0
   Heterozygous 83 190 284 3 100
   Homozygous – No site - - 284 0 0
Harris's sparrow
(Z. querula)
  Homozygous – Dra I site 72/73 88/91 - 1 25.0
   Heterozygous 72 or 73 88 or 91 284 0 0
   Homozygous – No site - - 284 3 75.0
Rufous-collared sparrow
(Z. capensis)
  Homozygous – Dra I site 89 191 - 10 100
Dark-eyed junco
(Junco hyemalis)
Slate-colored
hyemalis
Homozygous – Dra I site 89 189 - 4 100
  Oregon
oreganus
Homozygous – Dra I site 89 189 - 3 100
  Gray-headed
caniceps
Homozygous – Dra I site 89 189 - 1 100
Song sparrow
(Melospiza melodia)
  Homozygous – Dra I site 89 185 - 5 100
Swamp sparrow
(M. georgiana)
  Homozygous – Dra I site 89 186/189 - 5 100
Purple finch
(Carpodacus purpureus)
  Homozygous – Dra I site 89 193 - 1 100