Parameters of genome collapse. (A) Locating WGD events on eukaryotic phylogeny. The WGD events (shown as colored dots) are assigned the following dates: 20, 50, 70, 150, 350, 450 Mya for Paramecium, Arabidopsis, Populous, yeast, teleosts, and higher vertebrates. (B) Proportion of duplicate pairs reduced, c = 2m/(n + m), where m is the number of single-copy genes deriving from reduced pairs and n is the total number of genes in the genome. (C) "Halving" distance; minimum number of genome rearrangements d necessary to a convert any inferred ancestral tetraploid to present-day genome, normalized, D = 2d/(n - m). (D) Number of analytical units (AU). (E) Parameter of geometric distribution fitted to distribution of AU lengths m > 0. In all these figures, multiple descendants of single WGD events (shown as vertically aligned same-color dots) have similar parameters, indicating a conserved gene-loss dynamic across these descendants.