Observed heterozygosity ( H
between females and males at 14 loci in three-spined sticklebacks. A, HO in females (white) and males (gray); B, FIS in females (white) and males (gray); C, FST between females and males. **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001. The blue colour indicates the loci where significant FST was observed, and the red colour represents the loci where no heterozygous males were found. Physical locations of loci were determined based on the three-spined stickleback genome but modified according to Ross and Peichel .