The Simulium H-rich, acid protein family. (A) Clustal alignment with their respective domains indicated as: (1) Signal peptide region, (2) HG repeat region, (3) HPH repeat region, (4) HKPED repeat region, and (5) QPE repeat region. The alignments of HP rich salivary proteins from Culicoides sonorensis (CulSO_), Anopheles darlingi (AD_) and Culex quinquesfaciatus (CQ_) were added with their accession numbers from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The symbols above the alignment indicate (*) identical sites, (:) conserved sites, and (.) less-conserved sites. (B) Bootstrapped phylogram derived from the alignment in (A). Simulium guianense proteins are indicated by a square, Simulium vittatum by a triangle, and Simulium nigrimanum by a circle. The numbers on the tree bifurcations indicate the percentage bootstrap support above 75%. The bar at the bottom represents 20% amino acid substitution. Protein sequences were aligned by the Clustal program, and the dendogram was made with the Mega package after 10 000 bootstraps with the neighbor-joining algorithm. For other details, see Figure 3.