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Table 3 Predicted transmitting ability (PTA) values (mean ± standard deviation) for three groups of Holstein cattle representing three stages of artificial selection since 1964

From: Effect of sample stratification on dairy GWAS results

Trait Group I (n = 301) Unselected since 1964 Group II (n = 215) Born 1975-1985 Group III (n = 1,654) Contemporary cows Born 1990-2008 Direction of change (II–I, III–II)
MY −1118.6±552.3 −403.5±246.8 301.3±239.3 ↑↑
FY −39.2±19.4 −12.2±8.2 11.2±10.3 ↑↑
PY −31.7±15.7 −13.6±6.4 10.3±7.5 ↑↑
FPC 0.015±0.035 0.023±0.066 0.002±0.065 ↑↓
PPC 0.016±0.018 −0.014±0.037 0.011±0.032 ↓↑
PL −3.093±1.785 −0.327±1.403 1.227±1.982 ↓↑
SCS 2.854±0.075 2.948±0.103 2.974±0.165 ↑↑
DPR 2.909±1.170 0.558±0.943 −0.151±1.322 ↓↓
SCE 8.654±0.329 8.149±0.999 7.508±1.185 ↓↓
DCE 7.884±0.175 9.015±0.918 7.664±1.052 ↑↓
SSB 7.860±0.192 7.369±0.488 7.657±0.648 ↓↑
DSB 8.483±0.694 9.987±0.708 7.661±1.098 ↑↓
NM −549.045±257.56 −211.581±107.18 223.822±178.13 ↑↑
STA −1.840±1.357 −1.146±0.775 0.413±0.990 ↑↑
STR −0.875±0.871 −0.629±0.853 0.198±0.872 ↑↑
BD −1.508±1.225 −0.855±0.866 0.271±0.876 ↑↑
RW −1.705±1.220 −0.918±0.837 0.276±0.903 ↑↑
DF −3.232±2.482 −1.638±0.957 0.703±0.906 ↑↑
RA 0.474±0.622 0.143±0.688 0.069±0.792 ↓↓
FUA −1.754±1.278 −1.479±0.825 0.641±1.110 ↑↑
RUH −2.749±2.013 −1.704±0.954 0.942±1.171 ↑↑
UD −0.782±0.730 −0.857±0.738 0.316±0.962 ↓↑
UC −2.114±1.538 −1.607±0.887 0.470±1.013 ↑↑
FTP −1.665±1.307 −1.447±0.906 0.564±0.916 ↑↑
RTP −1.797±1.461 −1.607±0.908 0.477±0.929 ↑↑
TL 0.063±0.555 0.251±0.783 −0.076±0.758 ↑↓
FA −0.893±0.866 −0.867±0.964 0.622±1.052 ↑↑
RLS −0.447±0.616 −0.249±0.811 −0.163±0.769 ↑↑
RLR −1.241±1.134 −0.980±0.911 0.611±0.974 ↑↑
FL −1.176±1.033 −1.045±0.916 0.677±0.919 ↑↑
FS −2.173±1.607 −1.378±0.766 0.695±0.910 ↑↑
  1. MY, milk yield in units of kilograms; FY, fat yield in units of kilograms; PY, protein yield in units of kilograms; FPC, fat percentage; PPC, protein percentage; PL, productive life; SCS, somatic cell score; DPR, daughter pregnancy rate; SCE, service-sire calving ease; DCE, daughter calving ease; SSB, service-sire stillbirth; DSB, daughter stillbirth; NM, net merit; STA, stature; STR, strength; BD, body depth; DF, dairy form; RA, rump angle; RW, rump width; FUA, fore udder attachment; RUH, rear udder height; UD, udder depth; UC, udder cleft; FTP, front teat placement; RTP, rear teat placement; TL, teat length; FA, foot angle; RLS, rear legs (side view); RLR, rear legs (rear view); FL, feet/legs score; FS, final score.