Changes in cytokine gene expression profiles in RSV-infected macrophage cells. (A) The fold change (FC) in cytokine gene expression at 4 and 24 hours post-infection (hpi) is presented as a heat map. In each case the FC range, probe identification (Probe ID), and gene name (Gene Title) are indicated. (B) Increased cytokine secretion in RSV-infected PMΦ cells. The PMФ cell preparation was either mock-infected or infected using a RSV inoculum that was either non-treated (RSV) or UV-inactivated (RSV UV). At 24 hours post-infection the cytokine levels were measured in the tissue culture supernatant. (C) The levels of specific cytokines persisted in RSV-infected PMΦ cells. Cells were infected with RSV and the cytokine levels measured at between 24 and 96 hpi. In each case the tissue culture supernatant was harvested and the cytokine levels measured using the Bio-Plex Mouse Cytokine 23-plex panel. The data shown were obtained from triplicate measurements, and representative data from one of two independent experiments are shown.