Binary vectors used for walnut transformation. The Agrobacterium binary vectors pDE00.0201, for expression of self-complementary iaaM and ipt oncogenes, and pDU10.2412 and pDUV10.0104, for Pv010 and Pv194 gene silencing, are shown. The pGR-Pv010 vector was used for co-transformation of walnuts with vector pDE00.0201. Arrows indicate the direction of transcription. LB and RB indicate the left and right T-DNA border sequences.