Disease-associated mutations in human cytoplasmic aaRSs. (A) Schematic representation of domain architecture of human cytoplasmic aaRSs in which disease-associated mutations have been identified. Catalytic domain and anticodon binding domain are in blue and cyan respectively. Domain boundaries for aaRS sequences were calculated using Pfam server. (B) Mutations (red) in human cytoplasmic aaRSs mapped on the crystal structures. Different domains in structures have been color-coded corresponding to (A).