Expression patterns of differentially expressed miRNAs and one target gene (tetur0906680) in the female and male comparisons. A. and B. Nine common differentially expressed miRNAs in the comparisons FI vs FU (control) and MI vs MU (control) identified by using Illumina small RNA deep sequencing (log2 fold-change) and validated by qRT-PCR. C. Validation of five female-specific differentially expressed miRNAs by qRT-PCR. B and C. Error bars represent standard errors of averages from three biological replicates (NS: not significant; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; Fisher's LSD test). D. qRT-PCR and Illumina small RNA deep sequencing both showed that candidate target gene tetur09g06680 of novel_16 was up-regulated in Wolbachia-infected mites. All the experiments had three biological replicates.