Distribution, venom collection and venom-gland dissection of Australian funnel-web spider species used in this study. (A) Map of the eastern half of Australia showing the distribution of the five species of Australian funnel-web spider used in this study. (B) Female funnel-web spider (Hadronyche infensa) from Fraser Island, QLD. In response to provocation, the spider has adopted a typical aggressive/defensive posture, with front legs and pedipalps raised and the fangs in an elevated position ready to strike. Note the drop of venom on each of the fang tips. (C) A single H. versuta venom gland that has been dissected from the surrounding muscle tissue. The venom gland in these and other mygalomorph spiders is located directly below the dorsal surface of the chelicerae.