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Table 3 Description of (type 2) loci with large effects on complex traits under selection in domestic cattle, such as milk and meat yield, and likely to be segregating in our populations

From: Selection for complex traits leaves little or no classic signatures of selection

Locus Location Description
PLAG1 BTA14 25.00 Mbp Region affecting many traits, including stature [31] and fertility [29]. Originally identified in Jersey-Holstein cross, Jersey are thought to be near fixation for the ancestral allele while Holstein and other breeds are near fixation for the alternate allele [29, 32].
DGAT1 BTA14 1.80 Mbp Dinucleotide substitution causing a lysine to alanine substitution (p.K232A) [33], where the mutant A allele decreases fat yield, and increases protein yield and milk volume [34, 35]. The mutant DGATA allele is at high frequency or fixed in Hereford, Angus and Charolais; and at lower frequencies in Holstein and Jersey [35].
GHR BTA20 32.05 Mbp A SNP mutation causing a missense phenylalanine to tyrosine substitution (p.F279Y). Effects on milk volume and composition [36].
ABCG2 BTA6 37.97 Mbp A SNP mutation causes a missense tyrosine to serine (p.Y581S) mutation which increases milk yield and decreases milk solids [37]. Identified in Israeli Holsteins where the frequency of the ABCG2C allele had increased in response to selection for milk yield and then decreased when selection changed to focus on increased milk solids [37]. The ABCG2C allele is at low frequencies (< 10%) in US and German Holsteins, Angus, British Frisian, Charolais and Hereford [38].
MSTN BTA2 6.22 Mbp A negative regulator of muscle development, multiple mutations have been described that cause ‘double muscling’ or extreme muscular hypertrophy [32, 39, 40]. In Limousin, a mutation associated with a mild increase in muscling, F94L, has been identified [41].