Complexes of the respiratory chain altered by degraded Nanobyk. Pristine CeO2 under-expressed 27 genes encoding subunits of complex I, III ( cytochrome b-c1), IV and V. Acid-degraded Nanobyk downregulated 10 genes encoding subunits of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), complex II (succinate dehydrogenase), complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and complex V (ATP synthase). Light-degraded Nanobyk down regulated 3 genes encoding subunits of complexes II and IV. Nanobyk NPs did not alter the respiratory chain. Differentially expressed genes belonging to this specific pathway are listed in Table 2.