Effect of rotenone treatment. Cells were exposed to different concentrations of rotenone in control medium for 30 min, followed by treatment with either control or palmitate media for 24 h. (a) On cellular ATP levels. Cellular ATP levels were measured by luciferase assay. Data presented as mean +/- s.d. of 3 independent experiments. , significantly different from control, p < 0.01, #, significantly different from palmitate treatment, p < 0.01 (b) On AMPK activation. AMPK activation was measured through western blotting for p-Thr 172. Details of the analyses are given in the methods section.