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Table 2 Changes in mammary gene expression in response to four times daily milking1 (IMF4) as determined by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).

From: Effects of increased milking frequency on gene expression in the bovine mammary gland

   Number of tags    
Tag Gene symbol Control IMF4 P-value UniGene annotation Putative function
Genes up regulated in IMF4
GCTCCAGGAC GCHFR 0 9 0.0034 GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulator regulation of NO synthesis
GACGACACGA RPS28 0 6 0.0214 ribosomal protein S28 protein biosynthesis
CAGCAAGGTG STK19 0 5 0.0385 serine/threonine kinase 19 transcriptional regulation
TCTCCCCTGT GAK 0 5 0.0385 cyclin G associated kinase membrane trafficking, putative tumor suppressor
AGGAGTTGGG   1 14 0.001 major histocompatibility complex, class I, A immune response
GGCCTGATCG LTF 2 17 0.0009 lactotransferrin defense against bacterial infection
GAAATCATTG UGP2 2 10 0.0304 UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 lactose synthesis
CCGGTATAAA   4 15 0.0214 unique2  
CCGGTCGCCC RPS9 8 23 0.0124 ribosomal protein S9 protein biosynthesis
GCAGTGGTAG   8 23 0.0124 unknown3  
GCGGCCAGCG LGB 12 32 0.0064 β-lactoglobulin component of whey protein
CAGATATAGG   15 31 0.0351 unknown  
GCCGGCCCGG RPS15 23 44 0.0253 ribosomal protein S15 protein biosynthesis
GGCAGGGCCT H2AFY2 48 87 0.0045 H2A histone family, member Y2 transcriptional regulation
CAGAAGAGCA   24 42 0.0481 unique  
ATACTACTGG   70 120 0.0033 unique  
Genes down regulated in IMF4
CCTTTGAAGT GLYCAM1 117 92 0.0055 glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 cell adhesion molecule
TCCATTGTCA   67 51 0.0185 unknown  
GTAGTTGGCT   106 80 0.0037 unique  
AACATATCAA CSN2 894 574 0 β-casein defense against infection
GGAAAGGCGG MFGE8 29 18 0.0303 milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (lactadherin) remodeling during mammary involution, neovascularization
AATGGCGCTC LALBA 195 120 0 α-lactalbumin lactose synthesis, antimicrobial and anti-tumor function in neonate
GGTTCAAAAC   20 10 0.0235 unknown  
GCTGAATAAA MUC1 13 6 0.0486 mucin 1, transmembrane defense against microbial infection, cell signaling
GAATAGGATG   21 8 0.0045 unknown  
CACCCCTGGA   11 4 0.0379 unknown  
CAAACTCTTG ATOX1 11 3 0.0163 antioxidant protein 1 ion transport, protective role in oxidative stress
AAAATAAAAG CXCL3 8 2 0.0405 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 immune response
ACCCTGTGCC   9 2 0.0216 LOC506990  
ACCAAAAACC COL1A1 27 5 0 type I collagen, α-1 component of extracellular matrix
ACCCGGCTGA   6 1 0.0406 MGC127561  
ATCAATAAAG CAPG 7 1 0.0229 capping protein (actin filament), gelsolin-like tumor suppressor, control of cellular motility
CTCGATGAAA XBP1 8 1 0.0135 X-box binding protein 1 immune response
GCCCACAAAG FGFBP1 9 1 0.0065 fibroblast growth factor binding protein 1 epithelial cell repair after injury, angiogenesis
GCGCCCCTGC   10 0 0.0006 major histocompatibility complex, class I, A immune response
CACACCCGGC MRPL45 8 0 0.0024 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45 protein biosynthesis
GTCTTTAATT   8 0 0.0024 unknown  
CTTTGTGTGC ALDOC 5 0 0.0225 aldolase C, fructose-bisphosphate cellular metabolism
GGCCCAGTTT PPIB 5 0 0.0225 cyclophilin B chaperone facilitating action of lactogenic hormones, inflammatory response
CAGATTTGTG DDX24 4 0 0.0467 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 24 RNA helicase
CCCGCGGAAA SAA3P 4 0 0.0467 serum amyloid A3 defense against bacterial infection, remodeling of mammary gland
GCCGAAGCTA TSC2 4 0 0.0467 tuberous sclerosis 2 inhibitor of cell growth and proliferation
TGAGGCTCAC QDPR 4 0 0.0467 quinoid dihydropteridine reductase L-phenylalanine catabolism
TTTGGTTTTC COL1A2 4 0 0.0467 type I collagen,α-2 component of extracellular matrix
GCTCCAGGAC GCHFR 0 9 0.0034 GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulator regulation of NO synthesis
GACGACACGA RPS28 0 6 0.0214 ribosomal protein S28 protein biosynthesis
CAGCAAGGTG STK19 0 5 0.0385 serine/threonine kinase 19 transcriptional regulation
TCTCCCCTGT GAK 0 5 0.0385 cyclin G associated kinase membrane trafficking, putative tumor suppressor
AGGAGTTGGG   1 14 0.001 major histocompatibility complex, class I, A immune response
GGCCTGATCG LTF 2 17 0.0009 lactotransferrin defense against bacterial infection
GAAATCATTG UGP2 2 10 0.0304 UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 lactose synthesis
CCGGTATAAA   4 15 0.0214 unique2  
  1. 1 Cows were milked twice daily from d 1 to 3 of lactation, and four times daily beginning at d 4 of lactation until d 21 post partum
  2. 2 Tag sequence is unique to this SAGE library
  3. 3 Tag sequence matches no Unigene clusters but has been sampled from other bovine SAGE libraries