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Table 1 Contrasting features of housekeeping and hypervariable genes.

From: The rules of gene expression in plants: Organ identity and gene body methylation are key factors for regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

Gene feature Housekeeping Hypervariable Genome
CDS length (bp) a 2624 (s.e. = 89) 1178 (s.e. = 73) 1931 (s.e. = 8)
Gene length (bp) a 3117 (s.e. = 87) 1493 (s.e. = 78) 2229 (s.e. = 8)
Total exon length (bp) a 1941 (s.e. = 52) 1169 (s.e. = 50) 1568 (s.e. 6)
Total intron length (bp) a 1173 (s.e. = 52) 323 (s.e. = 44) 660 (s.e. = 4)
Number of exons (pb) a 8 (s.e. = 0.31) 3 (s.e. = 0.24) 5 (s.e = 0.03)
Genes without introns 6% (p = 5E-16) 33% (p = 0.0007) 28%
Average number of transcription factor binding sites b 27 ± 1.2 (p < 0.01) 46 ± 1.8 (p < 0.0001) 30 ± 0.1
TATA-containing genes c 5% (p = 1.3E-6) 45% (p = 6.1E-15) 15%
Genes coding for unstable transcripts d 0% (n.a.) 8% (p = 9E-11) 1%
Shared among eukaryotes e 18% (p = 0.002) 7% 14%
Plant-specific e 11% 34% (p = 2E-10) 14%
Body methylation f 63% (p = 1.5E-35) 8% (p = 2E-10) 34%
Promoter methylation f 3% 3% 5%
Body methylation g 36% (p = 9.1E-21) 2% (p = 3.8E-8) 20%
  1. The first column lists various features analyzed for housekeeping genes (second column), hypervariable genes (third column) and the whole genome (fourth column). Rows report average and standard error or percentage values. P values for significant (p < 0.01) enrichment or depletion as compared to the genome occurrence are shown in parenthesis. a, differences between all groups are significant (p < 0.01) as determined by ANOVA.b, average number of cis-acting regulatory elements as defined in the AGRIS database [47]. p-value was determined by a t-test. C, presence of TATA-box as determined by the MotifSearch algorithm [26]. Similar results were obtained with an alternative TATA-box definition [27]. d, unstable transcripts as defined in [19]. e, phylogenetic profiles as defined previously [18]. Only significantly enriched profiles are listed. f, methylation patterns as determined in [24]. g, methylation patterns as determined in [25]. n.a., not applicable.